Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 110

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1573L1Add., 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1598/1610/1613D, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S editions. Inclusion of the Dutch 1598/1610/1613 text in these scholarly editions is very unusual:

110.1. {1573L1Add/1573L(A){BAVARIA.

110.2. Bavaria [Bayern], called Boiara {1606E only{by the Romans}1606E only}, or, as others prefer, Bayern, was in former times inhabited by the Narisci, Vindelici and Norici. The Narisces, who are now called Nardge, are separated from the other two by the river Danube. The Noricks entered [this country] at the river Inn, and turned to the East and the South {1606E instead{West,}1606E instead} all the way to Hungary and Italy. The Vindelici lived between the rivers Lech, Danube, Isar, Inn and the Alps, which Ptolemæus calls Penninæ. All this part is now under the rule of the dukes of Bavaria, and is contained under the single name of Bavaria. Bavaria is divided into the Higher and the Lower. The Higher is situated near the Alps and towards the South.
110.3. This [area] is covered with many marshes, huge lakes, swift streams [and] dark and impenetrable woods. Next to bears, boars and [other] such wild beasts, it has many herds of hundreds of stags, {1606E instead{of a hundred years old}1606E instead} which no man may hunt without the permission of the prince, or [there will be] a severe penalty. It has a good soil for pastures for feeding the cattle. Yearly it yields plenty of apples, barley, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{oats and such corn, although not of all sorts, but only what can ripen in three months}not in 1598/1610/1613D}. It is only sparsely inhabited. The cities of this country are Munich on the banks of the river {1608/1612I only{Loisa or}1608/1612I only} Isar, a most excellent and famous city, where the duke lives. {not in 1598/1610/1613D & 1608/1612I{This city continually feeds its lions}not in 1598/1610/1613D & 1608/1612I}.
110.4. Many people think that it surpasses all the cities of Germany in beauty. [Then] Ingolstadt, adorned with a public university. Besides these, there are Freising, a bishops see, Wasserburg, Neuburg, Rosenheim, Ravensburg &c. Lower Bavaria is more fertile, and more densely inhabited. And close to the rivers Danube, Isar and Laber it grows vines. Its cities are Regensburg {not in 1598/1610/1613D{which some call Ratisbona, formerly called Augusta Tiberia}not in 1598/1610/1613D}, situated on the Danube whose suburbs on the opposite bank of the river are joined to it by a fair stone bridge. [Then] Patavium, commonly called Passau at the mouth of the river Inn where it empties into the [river] Danube, famous for its bishops see, [then] Straubing, Landshut, Dingolfing, Osterhofen and various others.
110.5. This country is generally fairly fertile. As regards salt, corn, cattle, fish, woods, birds, pastures, deer and all such things necessarily required for man's maintenance, either for apparel or food, it is sufficiently provided. It breeds many swine, which are fed and fattened with acorns and fir cones in such amounts that they are exported to most countries of Europe, as happens in Hungary} with oxen. Salt, cattle and corn are exported from here, and sold to foreign countries. Wines are conveyed to this area from other places, such as from {not in 1608/1612I{Italy}not in 1608/1612I}, Istria, Rhætia, {1608/1612I only{Friuli, the land of the Grigioni}1608/1612I only} the Rhine, Neckar and Pannonia [Austria] {1598/1610/1613D & 1608/1612I instead{Hungary}1598/1610/1613D & 1608/1612I instead}.
110.6. But no province of Germany is beautified with more and finer cities. For within its borders, {not in 1608/1612I{(as Philip Appianus writes on his map of Bayern}not in 1608/1612I) it contains thirty-four cities, forty-six towns, (Mercktflecken they call them,) seventy-two monasteries, besides an innumerable number of villages, castles and noblemen's houses. In it, Salzburg is the main city in this area, and the archbishopric, which commands many suffragans, as [for instance] {1608/1612I only{the bishopric}1606/1612I} of Trento [now N-Italy] , Passau, Vienna &c. The people prefer farming and grazing to warfare, nor do they delight in merchandise and trade. They are much given to drinking and making/raising children. They seldom travel outside their own country.
110.7. The first founder of this nation was Alemannus Hercules, the eleventh king of High Germany. His name is in this country still preserved in the village and castle of Allmannstein and the river Allman. In former times this country was ruled by its proper king {not in 1598/1610/1613D{until the days of Arnulphus the Emperor. They call him in his land}not in 1598/1610/1613D} Cacan, {not in 1598/1610/1613{as the Parthians [call theirs] Arcases, [and] the Egyptians [call theirs] Ptolemæus}not in 1598/1610/1613D}. After that, it had dukes, which is still the case today.}1598/1610/1613D ends here} {1608/1612I only{Saint}1608/1612I only} Marcus, a certain disciple of St. Paul converted this province to the Christian religion, and he was the first bishop of Laureace {1580/1589G & 1602G only{or Lorch}1580/1589G & 1602G only}, which bishopric was later transferred to Passau. So much from Aventinus, Münster and Johann Aubanus of Bohemia}1573L1Add, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.

Vernacular text version, translated from the 1573D1Add/1573D, 1573G1Add/1573G, 1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F editions:

110.8. {1573D1Add/1573D{Beyerlandt.

110.9. Except wine, this country has everything needed for human needs, which is a result of its location, for it lies close to the big mountain range separating Germany from Italy. Close to this mountain range, it is full of mines with silver, copper, iron and salt. It is also wooded, and therefore has so many boars or swine that it feeds a large part of Germany with them. It has many beautiful rivers, issuing from these mountains, which all empty into the Danube (which traverses this country) and as a result many lakes, with much fish. Between these waters there are many wide fields with much corn, particularly around Regensburg and Passau. But since the cold wind from the North blows against this high mountain range, and from there repelled blows in this land for the second time (so to speak), it is unfit for producing wine.
110.10. But they obtain enough of it from surrounding countries in exchange for those things of which in their own produce they have a surplus. There is no country in Germany that has more well built cities (for as Philippus Appianus says on the map he made of this area), it has 34 cities, 46 towns or liberties, 72 monasteries without [counting] all villages, castles and mansions. Among these cities Munich is the main one, where dukes keep their court. You can always see lions here, who also get cubs. This seems to be the most beautiful city of all of Germany. Then the bishoprics of Regensburg, Freisingen and Aichstetten. Further Salzburg, Passau, Landshut, Hochstadt &c.
110.11. In the North this duchy borders on Frankenland and Bohemia, in the South on the Alp mountains, in the East on Austria and in the West on Schwaben-landt. In the middle it is divided by the river Danube. This country was first converted to Christianity by St. Lucius (born in England from royal descent) and later by St. Rupertus, who founded the bishopric in Salzburg, further strengthened in this faith}1573D1Add/1573D, 1573G1Add/1573G, 1574F1/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F end here}.

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