Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 108

Text, scholarly version, translated from the 1595 Latin, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin and 1609/1612/1641 Spanish edition.

108.1. {1592L{The bishopric of Salzburg.

108.2. Franciscus Irenicus says that of the five bishoprics of Bavaria this is the main one, and the bishops see (called by Ĉneas Sylvius the metropolitan city) of which we have recorded the picture here as provided by Münster: Julius Cĉsar, intending to make war with the Germans, ordered a very strong castle to be built in the straights between the mountains, where his soldiers when endangered might retreat, and from where they might obtain help as required. And therefore it was called Castrum Iuvaviense, in the German tongue Helfenberg [castle of help]. The river on which it lies, called Iuvavius, is thought by some to have given its name to this castle, after which also the city, [which was] built later, was called Iuvavia. This city has fens, plains, hills and mountains around it which belong to it. The fens have pastures, the mountains [allow for] hawking and hunting. But this city, which was flourishing for a while a long time ago, was in the time of Attila, king of the Huns, invaded and attacked, and was miserably destroyed by fire and sword. Afterwards, around the year of Christ 520, when St. Rupert, descended from the royal lineage of the Franks, was appointed bishop of the see of Worms, and was driven out of his bishopric after the death of Childebert, [then] Thedo, duke of Bayern, entertained him with great joy and solemnity at Ratispone {1602G instead{Regensburg}1602G instead}, and was baptised by him, [together] with his nobles and commons. Rupert the bishop went from there, and travelling through Noricum {1602G instead{Bavaria}1602G instead} to Pannonia {1602G instead{Oesterreich}1602G instead}, preaching the gospel, he converted many to the faith of Christ. And he came to the river Iuvave, where once stood the city of Iuvave, but now ruined, decayed, overgrown with bushes, and without inhabitants. And considering the place suitable for a bishops see, he obtained it in possession from the duke, removed the trees and bushes, and finding the foundation of buildings, he established a church there, which he dedicated to the honour of St. Peter. Also, assisted] by the bountiful magnimity of the same duke, he founded a monastery of the order of St. Benedictus, and governed the bishops see for forty-four years &c. The same author [Münster] in the same place lists the rest of the bishops and archbishops of this see as well. See Aventinus, who thinks that this city was called Pœdicum by Ptolemĉus.
108.3. This city is located in the Alps. Some think that it has been named Salzburg after the salt which in the adjacent region, not far from Reichenau is dug from the earth {1606E only{in great quantities. Yet some disagree, who do not call it Salzburg or Salisburg but Salczburg after the river Salcz or Salzach, on [the banks of] which it is built and located, similar to Insperg [or] Instadt [which is named] after the river Inn, Iltzstadt after the Iltz, Regensberg after the Regen which is near, and a thousand such [examples] are everywhere to be observed}1606E only}.
108.4. The territory and range of this city is rich in all sorts of metals, such as gold, silver, brass and iron. Here is also found vitriol, brimstone, alume and antimony {1602S & 1609/1612/1541S have instead{alcohol}1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead}. It also has some quarries with marble}1602G ends here}. Wiguleius Hund has published a list of the bishops of this city. The Journal of Antoninus mentions Iuvave. But Gaspar Bruschius supposes that the more ancient name of Iuvave was Helfenberg, and that Iuvave came from that, since it means the same. Pighius writes that he has read the following verses in the chief church of this city.

108.5. Tunc Hadriana vetus, quĉ post Iuuauia dicta,
108.6. Prĉsidialis erat Noricis, & episcopo digna
108.7. Rudberti sedes, qui fidem contulit illis
108.8. Christi: quam retinet, Saltzburgum ferè vocata}1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.
108.9. {1606E & 1608/1612I only{Thus verbatim in English/Italian,
108.10. Where Hadriana old did stand, which since they Iuuaue called,
108.11. (A garrison town to Roman state) there Robert was installed
108.12. First Bishop of the see, who them did bring to cheerful light
108.13. Of Gospel clear, which they yet hold, it now is Salczburg height}1606E & 1608/1612I only end here}.

Text, vernacular version, translated from the 1598 French edition:

108.14. {1598F only{The bishopric of Salzburg.

108.15. The bishopric of Salzburg is of the five bishoprics which you find in the land of Bavaria the best one, fully enclosed as it is by the mountains where there are many mines, such as for gold, silver, copper, iron, copper sulfate, sulphur, alume, antimonium or spiesglas and beautiful marble. Close to Berchtesgade & Reichenau which belong to this bishopric, there are salt mines, and the same is true for Salzburg, which probably gave this city its name, whereas others say that it derives this name from the river Salzsach, on which it is situated. For this city used to be called Iuvavia, after the river Iuvavius. Aventinus says that Ptolemĉus called it Pœdicum. It is surrounded by mountains, valleys and pastures.
108.16. Münster writes about the founding and origin of this city that Julius Cĉsar ordered to build a castle here to attack the Germans from this side, and called it Iuvaviense castle, which is in German Helpenburg, and in French Castle for help, or for aid, so that the Roman garrisons could obtain help and shelter here. This castle in the course of time expanded into a city which was still called castle Iuvavia, but at what time this name was changed we do not know, as he writes. Since that time it was burnt and destroyed by Attilla, king of the Huns.
108.17. Then around the year 580 it was rebuilt, and it was perhaps at this time that it adopted a new name. In the year of Christ 612 there arrived in the land of Bavaria Saint Rupert, of royal descent, bishop of Worms, who converted many to the Christian faith, and who baptised in the city of Regenburg duke Teudo and his entire court, and various others, going through the land and preaching the gospel. Finally he came to Salzburg and considered the location to be a good one to establish there an episcopal see. He built and beautified (with the consent of the duke) a beautiful church in the honour of Saint Peter. Similarly, he also built a cloister in the order of Saint Benedictus.
108.18. The duke established a bishopric in this place soon afterwards and maintained this see for about 44 years. And since that time this bishopric has been changed into an archbishopric}1598F only}.

Bibliographical sources

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