Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 104

Text, scholarly version, contained in 1573L1Add/1573L(A), 1573L(B), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S editions:

104.1. {1573L1Add/1573L(A){MORAVIA.

104.2. MORAVIA is thus described by Johan Dubravius in his Bohemian history: Moravia was anciently called Marcomannia, because it borders on Germany in that place where the Danubius enters Pannonia {1606E & 1608/1612I instead{Hungary}1606E & 1608/1612I instead}. For Mark in High German means a limit or confine, and therefore Marcomanni are those who inhabit the borders of a country. Concerning these people Arrianus writes in his book on Germany [like this]. The farthest of these nations, (he says) are the Quadi and Marcomanni {not in 1588S, 1602G, 1602S, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S{belonging to the Sarmati}not in 1588S, 1602G, 1602S, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S}, then the Iazyges {1580/1589G & 1602G only{or Siebenburger}1580/1589G & 1602G only}, a people of Sarmatia and after that the Getes, and finally a great part of the Sarmatians {1580/1589G & 1602G only{that is, the Tartars or Poles}1580/1589G & 1602G only}.
104.3. But at this moment, because it is bounded by the river Morava, the inhabitants are called Moravi after it, and the country Moravia. As it now stands, it is on three sides confined by mountains, woods, forests, or rivers. On the East from Hungary, on the West from Bohemia, and on the North from Silesia. In the South towards Austria it is flat, being somewhere separated from it by the river Thaysa and in other places by another unknown river.
104.4. The main river in Moravia is the Morava which goes around the main city called Olmouc, and from there running into Pannonia {1580/1589G & 1602G instead{Austria}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}{1606E & 1608/1612I instead{Hungary}1606E & 1608/1612I instead} empties itself and its tributaries into the stream of the Danube. For the Morava receives into its bosom the river Nigra and that of Switta, on which is located the city of Brin, next in dignity to Olmouc. Also the Thaysa which passes along the city of Znaim, famous for the death of Sigismund the emperor, and lastly the Igla which passes by the city of Igline, finally rendering its own and its neighbours substance into the great Danube.
104.5. But the river Oder begins not far from Olmouc and retains its name [all the way] to the ocean. Some think that PtolemŠus calls it Viadrus. [However,] Oder is named after a word borrowed from fowlers who call their watchtowers for spying and catching birds Odri, and such towers you now still find in Moravia near the source of the Odera. Neither must we here omit the river Hana which, although sometimes low in water, still moistens the neighbouring fields, making them the most fertile of the whole region, which is why the farmers because of their rich harvests call them the breast {1588S, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S instead have{fat}1588S, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S instead} of Moravia.
104.6. Here also, more often than in other places, silver and gold coins of Marcus Antoninus and of Commodus and some other emperors are found. Which is clear evidence of ancient wars between the forces of the empire against the Marcomanni {not in 1606E{in this Moravia}not in 1606E}.
104.7. This one thing most worthy our admiration is, that in Moravia there is a kind of incense & myrrhe which is not derived from sweating {1606E instead{not distilled from}1606E instead} trees as in other countries, but dug from the earth, in one place only called Gradisco where up to now they do not only find incense called male incense because of its resemblance with the privy parts of a man, but also in the shape of other members, both of a man and a woman.
104.8. And recently Wenceslaus of the noble family surnamed of the Oak, as he was making a foundation of the bank of a fish pool {1602G has instead{stronghold}1602G instead} in his field at Sterrenberg {1573L1Add/1573L(A) instead{Trinaria}1573L1Add/1573L(A) instead} found the entire body of a man consisting entirely of myrrhe which he distributed to his friends, and remembering me among them, {1602G instead{although I at that time had no evident relation with him}1606G instead} bestowed on me [a piece the size of] half an arm, which I often used as perfume.
104.9. The inner part of the region has an arable, exceedingly fertile and fat soil, most suitable for corn, as [are] the hills for vines, being more favourable to vineyards than the hills of Bohemia. As a result it excels in abundance with good wine. And it is so generally manured, and has so many farmers [tilling the land], that unless it concerns forests and waste areas, there is no pasture at all for feeding cattle. For the rest, both in speech, fashions and customs, they are like the Bohemians. So far for Dubravius.
104.10. In the year 895 the people of this region were instructed in the Christian faith by St. Methodius, at the procurement of Arnulphus the Emperor. Under emperor Henricus the fourth in the year 1086 this country, together with Lusatia and Silesia, was incorporated into the kingdom of Bohemia. Their language is a mixture for most of them speak Bohemian, and high German is used only in the city among people of the higher classes. This province (as Dubravius writes) yields plenty of wine, but not of the strongest [sort], such (says Rithaimerus, and I myself can confirm this from experience) that whoever drinks it has to take care {1580/1589G & 1602G has instead{is not entirely liberated from his worries, but remains mentally composed}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}. {not in 1606E{We have some of the coins mentioned by Dubravius, showing the spoils of their enemies, and inscribed with FROM THE MARCOMANNI}not in 1606E}. Duglossus in his Polish history says that the name of the river Oder signifies in the Henetian {1580/1589G & 1602G have instead{Wendian}1580/1589G & 1602G instead} language flood or robbery. Olmouc, the main city of the region and the seat of a bishop, is described by Stephanus Taurinus in his Stauromachia {1608/1612I only{dealing with a battle of the crusaders}1608/1612I only}. Concerning Moravia, next to Dubravius, read Ăneas Silvius in his Bohemian history.
104.11. This map of Moravia, first drawn by Fabritius but afterwards corrected by various gentlemen of the country, was sent to me for the benefit of our studies by Johan Crato, counsellor and main physician to emperor Maximilian the second, {1606E only{a wealthy supporter of these studies of mine}1606E only}{not in 1606E{for inclusion in this publication}not in 1606E}. He also gave me this list of towns with both their German and Bohemian names.
[presented in 3 pairs of columns]
104.12. The German names. The Bohemian names.
104.13. Behemsche Triebaw, Trzebowa Czeska.
104.14. Landskron, Land▀kraun.
104.15. Schirmberg, Semanin.
104.16. Schiltperg, Ssiltperck.
104.17. Hanstadt, Zabrzch.
104.18. Zwittaw, Swittawa.
104.19. Merherische Tribaw, Trzebowa Morawska.
104.20. Neustadt, Nowy Miesto.
104.21. Deutschbrodt, Niemecky brod.
104.22. Iglau, Czichlawa.
104.23. Budwers, Budegowice.
104.24. {1579L(B), not in 1580/1589G & 1602G{Weissenkirch, Hranitza.
104.25. Plos, Pzin}1579L(B), not in 1580/1589G & 1602G}.
[next pair of columns:]
104.26. Drosendorff, Drosdowice.
104.27. Freyen, VVranow.
104.28. Schtignitz, Trztenice.
104.29. Holsterlitz, Hosteradice.
104.30. Mislicz, Moristaw.
104.31. Ioslwitz, Iaroslawice.
104.32. Dayex, Diakowice.
104.33. Grustpach, Hrussowamy.
104.34. Maydpurgk, Dewczihrady.
104.35. Auspitz, Hustopecz.
104.36. Nuslau, Nosyslaw.
104.37. {1579L(B), not in 1580/1589G & 1602G{Tischain Itza.
104.38. Schwartz Wasser Strumen.}1579L(B), not in 1580/1589G & 1602G}.
[next pair of columns:]
104.39. Selowitz, Zidlochowice.
104.40. Brin, Brno.
104.41. Olmutz, Holomane.
104.42. Prostnitz, Prostegow.
104.43. Wischa, Wyskow.
104.44. Austerlitz, Slawkow.
104.45. Kremsier, Kromerziz.
104.46. Vngerisch brod, Vhersky brod.
104.47. Gťding, Hodomin.
104.48. Lumpenburg, Brzetislaw.
104.49. Altmarck, Podiwin}1573L1Add, 1573L(AB), 1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G & 1602G end here}.
104.50. {1584L{
Ostra, Ostracia.}1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 1609/1612/1641S end here}.[Spelling of these place names varies per edition language].

Now we present the vernacular text version contained in 1573D1Add, 1573G1Add/1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1598F & 1598/1610/1613D editions:

{1573D1Add{104.51. Moravia.
104.52. {1573G1Add only{Johan Dubravius describes Moravia as follows}1573G1Add only}: {1573D1Add[Moravia was by the ancients called Marcomannia because it is at the utmost part of Germany when travelling along the Danube to Hungary {1573G3Add instead{Austria}1573G1Add instead}. For Marck in high German means border and therefore, whoever live at the border or frontier are called Marcomannen. Arrianus in his description of Germany writes like this: Of these peoples the Quadi {1573G1Add instead(Silesians}1573G1Add instead} and Marcomanni are the utmost, next to the Jazyges {1573G1Add instead{Siebenburger}1573G1Add instead}, {not in 1573G1Add{a people from Sarmatia}not in 1573G1Add}. Next to them there are the Getae, and next there is a large part of Sarmatia {1573G1Add instead{Poland}1573G1Add instead}.
104.53. But nowadays, living at the river Morava, the inhabitants are called Moravians, so named after this same river. {Not in 1573G1Add{About this country Johan or Janus Dubravius writes as follows}not in 1573G1Add}{1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F only{in his history of Bohemia}1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F only}: Moravia as it is now is bordered on three sides by mountains or forests or rivers; in the East it has Hungary, in the West Bohemia, in the North Silesia and in the South Austria. It is flat and is traversed at some places by the river Thaysa and elsewhere by some insignificant brooks.
104.54. The main river of Moravia is the Morava, which flows past its capital Olomouc and from there further to Hungary {1573G1Add instead{Austria}1573G1Add instead}, and finally, enlarged with other waters, empties into the Danube. For this river Morava is augmented by the river Svratka/Nigra and Switta off Brno, the best city after Olomouc. Then [it receives] the river Tayssa at the city of Znoyna, well known through the death of Sigismund the emperor, and finally the river Iglan which flows past the city of Iglinia, {not in 1573G1Add{finally emptying itself into the Danube}not in 1573G1Add}.
104.55. Then there is the river Oder which has its spring not far from the city of Olomouc, retaining its name all the way to the ocean. Some think that PtolemŠus calls it the Viadrus [Oder]. They call it Oder after the bird watchers, who call the huts for watching birds Odri. And nowadays many such huts can be found in Moravia at the spring of the Oder. But we should not omit the river Hana, although sometimes containing only little water, yet waters the fields, so that there are no more fertile corn fields in Moravia than here, and those reaping it because of the abundance of corn call it, as they say, the breast of Moravia.
104.56. Moreover, there, more than elsewhere, gold and silver coins displaying Antoninus, Commodus and some other emperors are dug up. These undoubtedly are sufficient testimony of the wars that have been fought with the Marcomanni in Moravia. It is marvellous that in this Moravia incense and myrrh is found, not flowing from a tree as elsewhere, but dug from the earth. This is only found in a place called Gradisco, and is not restricted to incense, and it is called masculine since it resembles a male member, but also female privy parts.
104.57. And recently, Wenceslaus, a nobleman of old royal lineage called of the Oaks when busy on his field near Sternberg laying the foundation of a dike {not in 1573G1Add{surrounding his fish pond}not in 1573G1Add}, found [something resembling] an entire human body, which only consisted of myrrh. This he distributed among his friends, and bearing me in mind, gave me a piece as large as half a man's shoulder, which I sometimes use as perfume.
104.58. The condition of this land in the middle is flat, and the earth is weak and fat, and therefore excellent to till. There are also hills with vineyards, so that the wine is here better and more abundant than in Bohemia. It has been built up so densely that there is no more room for grazing flocks, except in uncultivated areas. Further, these Moravians resemble the Bohemians in language, manners and way of life. So far Dubravius.
104.59. This country has been converted to Christianity in the year 895 by St. Methodius, thanks to emperor Arnulphus. During the reign of emperor Henricus the Fourth in 1068 it has been incorporated into the realm of Bohemia together with Lusatia and Silesia. The people are bilingual but mostly Bohemian, for German is only spoken in the cities and by noblemen.
104.60. It is fertile with wine, as Dubravius writes, but not so strong (as Rithaymer writes and as we have tasted by ourselves)as to make one carefree. We possess the coins Dubravius writes about, with the spoils of the enemy on it, with the text: About the Marcomanni. Duglossus writes in his History of Poland that the name of the river Oder in the Henetian {1573G1Add instead{Wendisch}1573G1Add instead} language means flood or robbery.{1573G1Add only{Olmouc, the capital and bishops see of the land is described by Stephanus Taurinus in his Stauromachia. Next to Dubravius, read about Moravia also in Ăneas Sylvius' Bohemian History}1573G1Add only}
The description of Moravia, written by Fabritius and corrected by some noblemen of this country at the request of Johannes Crato, counsellor and prime physician of emperor Maximilian the Second, Crato sent to me in his benevolence and liberal attitude for inclusion in our work. The following list has been supplied by the same person in which some place names of this country are given in the High German and Bohemian language.

104.61. High German. Bohemian.
104.62. Behemische Triebaw, Trzebowa Czeska.
104.63. Landskron, Land▀kraun.
104.64. Schirmberg, Semanin.
104.65. Schiltperg, Ssiltperk.
104.66. Hanstadt, Zabrzeh.
104.67. Zwittaw, Swittawa.
104.68. Merherische Triebaw, Trzebowa Morawska.
104.69. Neustadt, Novvy Miesto.
104.70. Deutstbrodt, Niemecky brod.
104.71. Iglau, Cziblavva.
104.72. Budwers, Budegovvice.
[next pair of colums in all editions:]
104.73. Drosendorff, Drosdovvice.
104.74. Freyen, Wranovv.
104.75. Schtignitz, Trztenice.
104.76. Hosterlitz, Hosteradice.
104.77. Mislicz, Morislavv.
104.78. Ioslwitz, Iaroslavvice.
104.79. Dayex, Diakovvice.
104.80. Grusthpach, Hru▀ovvany.
104.81. Maydpurgk, Dewezi hrady.
104.82. Auspitz, Hustopecz.
104.83. Nuslau, Nosyslavv,
[next pair of columns in all editions:]
104.84. Selowitz, Zidlochowice.
104.85. Brin, Brno.
104.86. Olmutz, Holomane.
104.87. Prostnitz, Prostegovv.
104.88. Wischa, Wyskovv.
104.89. Austerlitz, Slavvkovv.
104.90. Kremsier, Kromerziz.
104.91. Vngerischebrod, Vhersky brod.
104.92. Gťding, Hodomin.
104.93. Lumpenburg, Brzetislavv.
104.94. Altmarck, Podivvin.}1573D1Add, 1573G1Add, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1598F & 1598/1610/1613D end here}.

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