Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 101

Text, first scholarly version, translated from the 1570 Latin (ABC), 1571 Latin, & 1573 Latin (AB)editions:

101.1. {1570L(AC){Bohemia.

101.2. Bohemia is a part of Germania, almost entirely exposed to the Northern winds. Its Eastern part is inhabited by the Moravi and the Silesians, in the North there are the same Silesians and Saxons who are called Misnenses [inhabitants of Meissen] and Thüringers. Towards the West is the country of the Advocati [Voitlanders] (Voitlandia in the vernacular) and the area of the people of Boiarii [Bavaria]. The South is occupied sometimes by Boiarii [Bavarians], and some Austrians, who live on both sides of the Donau. And Bohemia has no borders with any other land but that of the Teutones [Germans]. A forest surrounds entire area, Hercynia is what the ancients called it. Both the Greek and the Roman writers remind us of this.
101.3. The rivers watering this country all empty themselves in the river Elbe. This river originates in the mountains dividing Bohemia from Silesia, and flows generally through the middle part of the province, first Westwards, then Northwards. When leaving this province, it speeds through the mountainous passages and steep valleys and finds its way to Saxony. Dividing this country in two parts, it runs further to the ocean, retaining equal distance over land from the river Rhine everywhere. Other rivers mentioned by the Bohemians are the Orlioze [Ohre], meaning eagle, the Egra [Eger], called after the city it waters. After this origin, it empties in the country of the Advocati [Voigtlanders] at Litomericia [Leitmeritz] into the river Elbe. But the river Moldau surpasses all other rivers. It flows through Prague, the capital of this realm. This river receives the river Saczania, Lusmicius and Missa, before emptying into the Elbe.
101.4. The entire land contains remarkable cities. Prague is the prominent seat of the king and the bishop, and is at least as large and noble as Etruscan Florence. The city is divided into three parts to which they gave the following names: The lesser Prague, old Prague and new Prague. Lesser Prague is on the left bank of the Moldau, and is connected by a hill on which you find the royal palace, the bishops palace and the noble church of Saint Vitus. Old Prague lies in a valley, fully ornated by splendid buildings. It is connected by a stone bridge with 24 arches to Lesser Prague. A deep moat separates the new and the old city, fortified on both sides by a wall. This moat can easily be flushed by water from the river.
101.5. After Prague there is Litemesce, another bishops see, close to the Moravi. Cuthna is also a city of renown where you find silver mines. Budweis is not to be scorned either. Slagenwerdius also has a reputation. The same holds for both cities called Brod, for Budin, Colonia, and Leitmeritz. This region is very cold and has an abundance of fish and cattle, and next to fowls, and game, is rich in corn. The cicera [chick pea] is used for making beer instead of wine and is called cervisia. The land is very good all over the kingdom. The wine that grows here is rather sour, and the richer people use wine imported from Austria and Hungary. The people here and the Dalmatians speak one and the same language. The old custom has been preserved to the present day to address the people coming to church in the Teutonic [German] language, but in graveyards they use Bohemian. Beggar priests are the only people who are free to teach the people in the language of their choice.
101.6. Throughout the country, the people like drinking, and they are dedicated to their own stomach. As often as you find inn-keepers offering wine from Crete for sale, you will find many people who, compelled by an oath, do not leave the wine cellar before they have emptied the entire barrel. The nobility seeks glory, is competent in war &c. This we have taken from the History of Bohemia by Aeneas Sylvius. {1573L{The Wotowa river of this region is also of importance, and (as Mathiolus in his comments on Dioscorides says), it yields shells which have the most beautiful pearls, both in magnitude, form and splendour, worn in great plenty by its most serene king, and he adds that he has also seen them worn by the most important Bohemians. Under the rule of this kingdom are also Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia. The city of Egra in the year 1315 became tributary to the Bohemians}1573L}. More is to be found in Münster, Rithaymer, Sabellicus' Aenn. 10 Bk. 2 and Albertus Cranzius in his description of the land of the Wandals. About the inhabitants of this area, their origins and their ancient settlements, read Book 1 of the History of Poland by Martin Cromerus. This author cites from the Bohemian History by a certain Dubravius, bishop of Olmutz, {not in 1573L(A){but this is a book we have not seen}not in 1573L(A)}. Georg Handschius has described Prague, the main city of this kingdom. This specific map we have derived from the map by Johan Crigingerus who published it in Prague in 1568}1570L(ABC), 1571L end here}.
101.6a{1573L(A){Because of the various names of certain cities in this kingdom, we thought it advisable here to put them down, after Münster, because the names of all their cities are by the Bohemians pronounced in one way, and by the Germans in another.
101.6b. [in curly brackets, between first and second pairs of columns]: These cities are directly subject to the King.

101.6c. Bohemian names German names

101.6d. Praha, Prag.
101.6e. Plzen, Pilsen.
101.6f. Budiciowize, Budwis.
101.6g. Kolin, Coeln.
101.6h. Cheb, Eger.
101.6i. Strzibro, Mils.
101.6j. Hora, Kuttêberg.
101.6k. Tabor, Taber.
101.6l. Zatetz, Satz.
101.6m. Litomierzitze, Leitmiritz. [next colums:]
101.6o. Launi, Laun.
101.6p. Rokowinck, Rakonick.
101.6q. Klatowy, Glataw.
101.6r. Beraun, Bern.
101.6s. Most, Bruck.
101.6t. Hradetz, Gretz.
101.6u. Auscij, Aust.
101.6v. Myto, Maut.
101.6w. Dwnor, Hof.
101.6x. Iaromiertz, Iaromir.

101.6y. [after curly bracket of last column pair:]These cities [just mentioned] are subject to the peers of the kingdom
[next pair of columns:]
101.6z. Dub, Ath.
101.6a1. Biela, Wiswasser.
101.6b1. Gilowy, Gilaw.
101.6c1. Krupka, Graupen.
101.6d1. Loket, Elbogen.
101.6e1. Hanzburg, Hasenburg.

101.6f1. The river Albis is by the Germans called Elbe, by the Bohemians Labe.
101.6g1. The Bohemians call the river Moldau by the name Vltawa}1573L(AB) end here}.

Vernacular version, translated from the 1571/1573Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1581 French, 1587 French and 1598 French editions:

101.7. {1571/1573D{Bohemerland.

101.8. Bohemia is surrounded by woods and mountains. It borders on Silesia, where it has very high cliffs and rocks. Further it has many dense forests as a defensive wall. Around it, beginning from the river Elbe Eastwards are the countries Lausnitz, Silesia, Moravia, Austria, Bayern, Nortgau, Voigtlandt, Frankenland and Meissen. And although in these surrounding countries people speak German, yet Bohemen has its own language, which is Windisch or Slavonic. It extends in length and width for about a three day journey, is roundish in appearance, fertile for any human needs, and watered by numerous rivers, which all empty within this area into the river Elbe (which has its source here as well). They grow some wine here, but not very good wine, {not in 1572/1573G{and much is also imported from Hungary, and that wine is good and strong}not in 1572/1573G}.
101.9. The common people mostly drink beer, which is very tasty so that to our taste (outside the Netherlands) we have never found any beer that is better. The inhabitants are great drunks. If in some tavern there is some Malvesy, they will not part with it (writes Æneas Syluius) until the barrel has been emptied. The capital of this country is Prague, situated on both banks of the river Moldau, connected by a stone bridge with 24 arches (which among all bridges we have ever seen, both in length, width and beauty, takes the prize). It is a very large city and is divided into three parts, [namely] Old, New and Small Prague, each with its own special council and jurisdiction. Small Prague is situated on the left bank of the river just mentioned.
101.10. The king of Bohemen keeps court on a hill there. New and Old Prague are on the other side of the water and are separated from each other by a wall and a moat. From here stem the knives that we call Pragenaars {1572/1573G only{with a yellow handle}1572/1573G only}. After Prague there is Litemierzitze at the border between Bohemen and Moravia, a bishopric. Then there is Cuthna, where you have silver mines. There are many other cities and rivers, as you can see on this map (which we have taken from the map of Iohannes Crigingerus and which was printed in Prague).
101.11. There are more than thirty cities (says Münster) which belong under the crown but are under no one's title. Some others belong to landlords and noblemen. In their own language the Bohemers call themselves Czech, and the Germans they call Niemecke}1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1598F end here}.

Text, second scholarly version, translated from the 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin (AB), 1580/1589 German, 1584 Latin, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598/1610/1613 Dutch, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612 Latin & 1609/1612/1641 Spanish editions:

101.12. {1574L{BOHEMIA.

101.13. {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Johannes Dubravius in his Bohemian history describes this region in the following manner}not in 1598/1610/1613D}. Bohemia is situated in Germany. Eastwards, it extends to the Marcomanni & Quados, {1580/1589G & 1602G have instead{the old Moravians and Silesians}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}{1606E only has instead{Moravia and Silesia,}1606E only} and Westwards to Bavaria. {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Upper Pannonia, now}not in 1598/1610/1613D} Austria borders at the South, as Saxony and Misnia do on the North. It is [shaped] in the form of an [amphi]theatre, all surrounded by the forests or woods of Hercynia {1580/1589G & 1602G have instead{Schwarzwald}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}. For this reason there is no large difference between the length and breadth of it, each [extending] not much above 200 miles. Carolus, king of Bohemia, who later became emperor, divided it into 12 regions, of which he called one after the river Vltawa {1580/1589G & 1602G have instead{Moldau}1580/1589G & 1602G instead} that runs through Prague.
101.14. The other eleven he called by the names of their principal towns, some of them being of such a harsh pronunciation that a man can hardly utter them unless he is born Bohemian or is very skilful in the Bohemian language. The main Bohemian towns lying towards the Marcomanni, nowadays called Moravia are Maut, Chrudim, Königin gretz {1580/1589G, 1602G & 1608/1612I have instead{Hradeck the queen}1580/1589G, 1602G & 1608/1612I instead}, Pardubitz, [and] Litomitz. Towards Bavaria where the Bayerns are you have Glatow, Domarlitz, Misa and Tachow. On the side towards Austria the principal town is Budvitz with Cromelaw, Trebon, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Hradeck of Henricus}not in 1598/1610/1613D}, as similarly on the side of Meissen you have Pons, Cadana {1598/1610/1613D & 1606E instead{Commoda}1598/1610/1613D & 1606E instead}{not in 1598/1610/1613D{Chomutawe}not in 1598/1610/1613D} and Austia.
101.15. And on the {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Quadis side }not in 1598/1610/1613D}, now Silesia, Iaromir, Glatz, Curia (1598/1610/1613D has instead{Hof}1598/1610/1613D} and some others. In the heart of the country, the principal noteworthy towns are Cuthna, Coeln, Pilsen, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Verona}not in 1598/1610/1613D}, Zateckz, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Launa, Slana, Lytomerick and Tabor}not in 1598/1610/1613D}. But the most important city of all is Prague, which is so large that it contains three fair cities, namely the new, the old and a third, namely the little town which is separated from the others by the river Vltawa. Their buildings, both public and private, are stately and magnificent.
101.16. This city has two castles. One is called Visegrad, formerly the king's palace, but [it is] now waste and desolate as a result of civil wars. The other castle looks out on the little Prague, as it is called, and it well deserves to be called the royal or princely castle. For it resembles a city, rather than a castle, taking up a large territory with its walls and buildings. Of public buildings the church built by King Carolus whom we mentioned before, and the castle erected by king Vladislaus, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{who lately died}not in 1598/1610/1613D}, are most memorable. And like Prague of all their cities is most prominent, so is the Elbe (which Tacitus calls renowned and famous) [the most prominent one] of all their rivers.
101.17. Concerning the source of this river, Tacitus writes, which can hardly be called correct, that its source is located in the region {not in 1598/1610/1613D{of Hermonduri}not in 1598/1610/1613D}{1580/1589G & 1602G have instead{Meissen}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}, which should be certain Bohemian mountains lying open to the North, on the frontier with Moravia, which the ancient Bohemians call Cerconessi. [Sprung] from these mountains, this river refreshes and waters the greater and better part of Bohemia. And after having augmented its stream from the contributing rivers Vltawa, Egra, Satzawa, Gitzera and Misa, continues its course and keeps its name through Misnia and Saxony all the way, enriched with an abundance of salmon, to the main ocean.
101.18. But the small {not in 1606E{Bohemian}not in 1606E} rivers and creeks yield in some places grains of gold, and in others shell-fish with pearls. There are also thermal springs in some places, not only pleasant to wash and bathe in, but also for medical purposes. This area is by itself so abundantly full of fruits that it also amply supplies the surrounding area. There is not much wine, in fact the country yields so little and of such a weak quality that it only may be kept for a short while. They have saffron of the best [kind], excelling both in colour, smell and moisture, {1580/1589G, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{three important properties in selecting this commodity}1580/1589G, 1602G, 1606E & 1608/1612I only}. There are silver mines, so exceedingly rich, that were it not for some small contaminations of flint which mixes with the veins [of silver], you would have nothing but perfect silver. {not in 1598/1610/1613D{[Compare this to] other countries, where silver mines are valued highly which hold a quarter, or a fifth part, or at the utmost half, of silver [ore]}not in 1598/1610/1613D}.
101.19. They also find plenty of gold ore in certain mines which take their name after a place called Gilova. It has been reported that the kings of Bohemia have had nuggets of pure gold brought to them weighing ten pounds a piece. Nor do they lack simpler metals, namely tin, lead, copper and iron. And sometimes they find precious stones in their rocks, such as carbuncle, {1580/1589G, 1588S, 1602G, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{[or] Calais}1588S, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only}, a yellow-green precious stone resembling topaz}1580/1589G & 1602G only}, {1606E only{sapphire}1606E only} and amethyst. {not in 1598/1610/1613D{Next to their mines, there is nothing of greater importance to the Bohemians than their waters, full of carps, {not in 1606E{and a special fish, not unlike carps, called Cyprinos}not in 1606E} which I have discussed in greater detail in a specific booklet dealing with fish ponds; not in 1598/1610/1613D}[the booklet Ortelius refers to here has never been found].
101.20. Now let us reveal the disposition of the inhabitants. Briefly, both in manners, habits and body stature, the Bohemians resemble the lion, king of the beasts, to the constellation [zodiac sign of lion] of which they are subjected, {not in 1598/1610/1613D{that is to say, if you consider the large size of their limbs, their broad and mighty chests, their yellow shag hair hanging over their shoulders, the harshness of their voice, their sparkling eyes, or their unusual strength and courage. The lion carries a kind of contempt and disdainful pride towards other beasts, and you shall hardly chase him away when you attack him by force. Neither does the Bohemian in this respect retreat, but he will rather show contempt towards other nations, both in word and deed, and will display his arrogance in his gait, gestures and pride. Being irritable, he [easily] grows impatient}not in 1598/1610/1613D}.
101.21. In any enterprise, he is as bold as a lion, and very determined and steadfast until he has carried out [his intentions], but not without a touch of ambition and vain glory. Moreover, like a lion he is greedy of meat, and very interested in its dressing and seasoning. And their neighbours the Saxons have taught them to revel at night, and stink during the day. And because of their closeness, the Bohemians do not differ much from the Germans in other qualities. {not in 1598/1610/1613D{So far Dubravius, who also describes the original and ancient dwelling place of this nation}not in 1598/1610/1613D}.
101.22. They brew excellent ale in this country, calling it white ale. They speak the Slavonic language, calling themselves Czechs, and the Germans Niemecks. Under the reign of this kingdom are also comprised the regions of Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia. In the year 1315 the city of Egra made tributary to the Bohemians}1598/1610/1613D ends here}, {1606E only{and became the warehouse or main market town of the Bohemians}1606E only}. Concerning the region itself you may read in greater detail in Æneas Silvius, and also about its people in the first book of Martinus Cromerus' Polish history. To these you may add Münster, Rithaimer, Crantzius' description of Wandalica, and Sabellicus Ænn. 10, lib. 2. {1601L, not in 1602G{Panthaleon Candidus recently wrote seven books entitled Bohemiades}1601L, not in 1602G}.
101.23. Prague, the main city of this kingdom is described in detail by Georgius Handschius. The map itself is based on the table [map] of Johannes Crigingerius, published in Prague in 1568.
101.24. Because of the various names of certain cities in this Kingdom, we thought it advisable here to put them down, after Münster, because the names of all their cities are by the Bohemians pronounced in one way, and by the Germans in another.
101.25. [in curly brackets, between first and second pairs of columns]: These cities are directly subject to the King.

101.26. Bohemian names German names

101.27. Praha PRAG
101.28. Plzen PILSEN
101.29. Budiciovvize BVDWIS
101.30. Kolim COELN
101.31. Cheb EGER
101.32. Strzibre MIß
101.33. Hora KVTTENBERG
101.34. Tabor TABER
101.35. Zatetz SATZ
101.36. Litomierzitze LEITMIRITZ//
101.37. Launij LAVN
101.38. Rokowinck RAKOWINCK
101.39. Klatovvy GLATAW
101.40. Beraim BERN
101.41. Most BRVCK
101.42. Hradetz GRETZ
101.43. Auscij AVST
101.44. Myto MAVT
101.45. Dvvuor HOFF
101.46. Laromiertz JAROMIR//

101.47. [after curly bracket of last column pair:] These cities [just mentioned] are subject to the peers of the kingdom

101.48. Duh ATH
101.49. Piela WEISWASSER
101.50. Gilowy GILAW
101.51. Krupka GRAVPEN
101.52. Loket ELBOGEN
101.53. Hanzburg HASENBVRG

101.54. The river Albis is by the Germans called ELBE, by the Bohemians Labe.
101.55. The Bohemians call the river Molta by the name Vltawa}1574L, 1575L, 1579L(AB), 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612L & 160/1612/1641S end here;} [note that the spelling of the Bohemian and German place names varies from one language edition to another].

Bibliographical sources

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