Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 099

Text (translated from the 1590 Latin 4 Add, 1591 German 4 Add., 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598 Dutch, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish and 1609/1612 Latin edition).

99.1. {1590L4Add{The Dukedoms of BRVNSWICK and LVNENBVRG.

99.2. These two regions are at this moment subject to one Prince. They are both named after their main cities, Brunswick and Lunenburg. The city of Brunswick was built around the year {1591G4Add & 1602G only{of our Lord}1591G4Add & 1602G only} 860 by Bruno, the son of Ludolphus who {not in 1598D{(as Crantzius says) first erected a street or borough, calling it Brunonis vicus}not in 1598D} after which the whole city ever since has been called Brunswick. <It is> a city of great renown, situated in the middle of Saxony on the river Onacri {not in 1598D{which empties into the Weser}not in 1598D}{1591G4Add & 1602G only{which runs through Saxony and the Duchy just mentioned and empties into the sea at Bremen}1591G4Add & 1602G only}. In the beginning, this town was small. But in the course of time, and gradually, it has now grown to such a state, richness and strength that its Princes are justly called Dukes of Brunswick. But this took a long time.
99.3. For in ancient times they only had the title of Lords, but under Frederick the Emperor in the year 1235, renewing their position, they were ordained <to be> Dukes. This is one of the seventy Hanse-towns. From which society, by a general Council of all those towns held in Lubeck in 1381, they were excluded because of their most cruel and bloody uprising, in which they killed the greater part of their Eldermen, banishing the rest. And so they were deprived of the benefits of this society for eight years, until they had done public penance and repentance. From which time they were readmitted into this corporation of the Hanse, that is to say, {not in 1598D{to be <again> partakers of all privileges granted {1590L4Add, 1592L & later{by the Princes and governors to all that were free from the said society}1590L4Add, 1592L, not in 1598D} in these four famous markets, namely London in England, Bruges in Flanders {1591G4Add & 1602G only{with its four markets each year}1591G4Add & 1602G only}, Bergen in Norway and Novgorod in Russia.
99.4. {not in 1598D{Their entitled saint or protector they consider to be St. Anthor the Confessor, once Bishop of Trier. For the honour of whose body, because it could not be brought within their city walls, they established a monastery under the title of St. Ægidius, then, outside the city but near the walls, but now (the city having grown) <located> within it. So much from Crantzius' story of Saxony and Wandalia. {1601L, not in 1608/1612I{Praise of this city you may find in Æneas Silvius 'Pius' II 32nd {1602S as instead{23rd}1602S instead} chapter of Europe}1601L, not in 1598D & 1608/1612I}.
99.5. The city of LVNEBVRG, built around the year of Christ 1190 upon a hill named Calcarium was almost entirely destroyed. {not in 1598D{It was so called, not (as the ignorant imagine) after Idolum lunæ, the idol of the moon which Iulius Cæsar or I do not know who consecrated here, (for this is but an old wives tale) but after a place not far off by the river Elmenon called Luna, where there has been a cloister of Nuns for many years}not in 1598D}. It is a city of great strength, surrounded by ditches and walls.
99.6. The citizen's main merchandise is salt, for here there are most plentiful and rich salt pits, from which they make great profits. For salt is boiled here in great quantities, and transported from here both by sea and land to Hamburgh, Lubeck and other places. These salt mines were first found in the year of Christ 1269. {not in 1598D{This city of Luneburg and its adjacent territory has been described in a specific Treatise by Lucas Lossius.
99.7. {1595L, not in 1598D & 1602G{About Hildesheim, five miles distant from Brunswijck, M. Antonius Moekerus, a citizen of this place, has also written a specific work}1595L, not in 1598D}.
99.8. On this map can be found the city of Hamelen on the river Weser {not in 1598D{or Visurgis}not in 1598D}. About which the learned and famous Physician D. Arnold Fretaghius wrote the following story in a letter to me. These are his words: I happened to meet a Saxon and a chronicler of Saxony. He reports that 330 (1606E has instead{130}1606E instead} years ago the city of Hamelen, {not in 1598D{<then> under the jurisdiction of Duke Eric}not in 1598D}, was exceedingly infested with mice. <Spanish editions everywhere have instead: rats>. There came a juggler who offered his services to the townsmen to drive them away. This offer was most acceptable to them, and they agreed on a reward, {not in 1598D{because they could keep nothing safely out of the way of this mischievous vermin}not in 1598D}.
99.9. Having reached an agreement with the townsmen, he draws all the mice out of the city with the sound of a drum {1606E has instead{bell}1606E}. Then he demands the wage that he has been promised. They deny it to him. Well, in a great rage he departs from the city, and within the following year he returns. And sounding the drum {1606E has instead(bell}1606E} which he had used before to cast a spell on the mice, he drew after him, to a hill not far off, a great number of the citizens' children. When they arrived there, both they and he immediately vanished. A girl of this company, either out of tiredness {not in 1598D{or by Gods intention}not in 1598D}, stayed a good distance behind. And returning home, being asked what she saw, reports that her fellows had gone up the hill with the juggler.
99.10. Then every man ran out to seek his child, but in vain, for from that time onwards, they never found out what became of them. Having read this, I judged it either to be a fable or, (as it is indeed) a most wonderful and strange story. I mentioned it after discussing it with certain citizens of this place. They all confirmed it to be true and said that the year, the day, and the number of children that were lost had been registered in the records of the city of Hamelen, and it is yet their custom among them, recorded in bonds and covenants written in an ancient hand, to use this figure of speech <for indicating a date>: VON VNSER KINDER AUFGANGH, {not in 1598D{that is to say Since the departure of our children}not in 1598D}. And they say that the way or street through which they were led <away>, to the perpetual memory of this misfortune, was called by the inhabitants DE BVNGLOESE STRAASS, <=the street without a sound> since it is against the law to sound a drum {1606E has instead{bell}1606E} there.
99.11. {not in 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L{This is what Fretaghius writes}not in 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L}end of 1598D}. {1590L4Add, 1592L & later{If you have perhaps read this story before, I recall it now to your memory. If you know anything that brings me closer to the truth, I pray that you tell me, leisure and occasion permitting. Fare you well, and love your Fretaghius. From Groninghen, {1590L4Add, 1592L, 1595L, 1598F, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{by Halbertstadt}1590L4Add, 1592L, 1595L, 1598F, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only} the ninth {1608/1612I has instead{tenth}1608/1612I instead}{1609/1612/1641S has instead{fourth}1609/1612/1641S instead} of November 1580}1590L4Add, 1592L & later; not in 1602G}.

99.12. {1590L4Add{A description of the territory of NURENBERG.

99.13. On the authority of Pighius' Hercules Prodicius, I have thought it right to record the origins and description of this place. His words are these: When the barbarous Huns overran a great part of Europe and also oppressed the people called Norici inhabiting {1602G only{Upper and{1591G4Add only{Lower}1591G4Add & 1602G only} Bavaria, some of their important families for shelter and refuge fled to the forest of Hercynia, settling in a commodious place near the joining of the rivers Pegnitz and Regnitz. And on a hill, by nature safely located and free from hostile invasions, they built themselves a simple and homely castle, {1590L4Add, 1592L & later{as is recorded in the Chronicles of Bavaria.
99.14. In a while, their numbers increased by <an influx of> the neighbouring farmers and the shepherds from the forest of Hercynia. And then out of this mixture of various sorts of people with different professions, they grew at last to the size of a town}1590L4Add, 1592L & later}. But leading a base and loose kind of life, without governors, without laws, and continually bothering the neighbouring Provinces with riots and robberies, it seemed right to the German Emperors to send there a settlement of old soldiers who might serve instead of a garrison for that place, to restrain their evil deeds, and to prescribe civil laws to them.
99.15. Some report that Henricus, Duke of Bavaria first turned it into a city, adorned it with the church of S<aint> Ægidius, enacted laws and surrounded the castle with a larger wall. Also that Conradus the second incorporated it into the Empire, for at the beginning it was a peoples estate. One single civil disagreement in the time of Charles the fourth changed it {1590L4Add, 1592L & later{into an Aristocratia or government of a few important persons}1590L4Add, 1592L & later}, through which the whole authority came into the hands of the Senators who ever since have used such equity and moderation in their government that there was not, at any time, in such a multitude of common people and diversity of nations any notable uprising or pernicious mutiny.
99.16. In the city there are three kinds of people, namely Senators, Merchants and Artisans. There are 28 {1608/1612I has instead{26}1608/1612I instead} ancient and honourable families from which new Senators are supplied, altogether twenty-six in number. Thirteen of these, called Burgomasters, consult about matters of Estate. The other thirteen they {1590L4Add, 1591G4Add, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L{commonly}1590L4Add, 1591G4Add, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L} call Scabins, who are always assisted by three stipendary lawyers. They deal out justice {1595L{on Court and Leet<?> days}1595L} and decide on controversies between citizens. It is forbidden by their ancient laws that any professed lawyer, or anyone bearing the title of a Doctor should be admitted to their senate, or to the government of their Commonwealth. From either of the halves or <groups of> thirteen referred to they choose every Lunar month or new moon a new Consul, so that every year the chief magistracy comes in turn for the duration of one month to everyone of the <group> of thirteen mentioned.
99.17. Five there are of the same group that in criminal cases make inquiries, pronounce sentences and allot punishment to offenders. They also have a Judge or President for their suburbs who executes justice among the peasants and villagers. From the same group, they also yearly elect two Treasurers, men of sufficient age, reputation and honesty, who take charge of the taxes and revenues of the whole city, and collect and disburse them. All the magistrates mentioned and others that have any authority are chosen only from the number of Senators mentioned. There are two hundred people yearly nominated from the three Estates and from the whole city, who once a year, or on any urgent occasion, being assembled by the magistrates, sit in common counsel.
99.18. The State or company of Merchants, although very important and honourable, are yet free from all public offices, and endowed with the most ample privileges. Carrying out their private trade, they amass in this city, as in a common warehouse, great riches, not only from Europe, but <also> from the most remote countries and islands in the world. The labourers and artisans who are of the lowest and meanest rank are not permitted to have public or private gatherings or meetings in the city, no solemn banquets or festive assemblies of many coming together, unless it concerns a matter of religion or some important funeral.
99.19. For they consider them as something threatening public tranquillity, having found out through frequent experience that the most dangerous uprisings and separations have originated from such meetings, where people in their drunkenness dispute about the Commonwealth. And that such tumults have deprived many cities of their liberty and brought great calamities upon them. Now, if any quarrel or disagreement arises among the common people, it is not referred to their Masters or Wardens of their crafts and trades, but to the Senators themselves, who immediately appoint two arbiters to investigate the cause and exert themselves to sort it out.
99.20. If they cannot reach an agreement, then it comes before the Senate, who, having considered the matter, impose silence on both parties under a grievous penalty. {1590L4Add, 1592L & later but not in 1602G{With great severity they punish fights, brawls, injuries and private quarrels, to maintain the public peace, to the extent that one would think that Minos and Rhadamantus dealt sentences from their seats of Judgement}1590L4Add, 1592L & later, but not in 1602G}. {not in 1608/1612I{So far for Pighius concerning the origins, the magistrates and the commonwealth of this city. You may read more by the same author}not in 1608/1612I}.
99.21. The regions surrounding the city, by nature barren and sandy, have been made fruitful by the industry of the people. In the same territory is Altorff, where a few years ago the States of Nurenberg instituted a University. Nurenberg is watered by the river Pegnitz which is crossed by many stone bridges. In circumference it is about eight miles. It is surrounded by a double wall with 183 turrets, next to castles and fortresses. Concerning the origins, location, manners and customs of this city, there is a notable discussion written by Conradus Celtis, the Poet laureate}1590L4Add} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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