Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 093

Text (translated from the 1570L, 1571L, 1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 158, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1598D, 1598F, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L editions)

93.1. {1570L{SAXONIA.

93.2. Although this Map bears the title of Saxony, yet it does not show all of Saxony, for true, ancient Saxony extended in former times between the rivers Elbe and Rhein as regards its entire length. Its breadth was restrained by the German sea and the river Eyder, and the borders of Hessen and Thuringen. Brunswick was almost in the centre and middle of it. But now it is no <longer> bounded by such natural limits as rivers and mountains are, but it is confined by other Princes signiories and counties. Therefore, Saxony at this day is divided into Upper and Lower <Saxony>.
93.3. Upper {1606E only{or Higher}1606E only} Saxony is that part which this Map represents, and it is graced with the title of a Dukedom, whose Duke is also one of the Prince Electors who have a say in choosing the Emperor. The main towns of this province are Witteberg and Torga. {not in 1598D{About Saxony and its antiquities Albert Crantzius has written an entire volume. {1595L{M<r>. Adams too in the first book of his Ecclesiastical history has something on this country worth reading}1595L}.
93.4. Hamelman too has published the histories of Saxony and Westfalen. They who want to know the situation, its bounds and famous deeds, let them read Witichindus and Sebastian Münster. {1592L{Pet. Albinus Nivemontius very recently, {1595L{and <before that> David Chytręus}1595L} have written very learnedly about this province}1592L}.
93.5. About the Marquisette of BRANDENBVRG, LVSATIA {1580/1589G & 1606E only{(Laussnitz)}1580/1589G & 1606E only} and VOITLAND, countries which we have also depicted on this Map, take these few lines}not in 1598D}. The Marquisette of BRANDENBVRG, one of those provinces which in old times were inhabited by the Wandals, is divided these days into Old and New <Brandenburg>. Through the former runs the river Oder, through the latter <the> Elbe, {1606E{Albis <is what> the Romans call it}1606E}. In the old Marquesate the chief city is Brandenburg, from which the whole country took its name. New {1579L, 1584L & 1592L have instead{old}1579L, 1584L & 1592L instead} <Brandenburg> has the city of Franckford, commonly called Franckford upon <the> Oder, to distinguish it from that <Franckford> which is situated on the river Meyn. There is a University, and a great Market is held twice a year.
93.6. At Berlin the Princes court is ordinarily kept. He <who heads> the Marquisette is commonly called the Marquis. He is also one of the Electors of the Prince. {1573L only{This Brandenburg is described in a specific book by Wolfgang Iobstius}1573L only}.
93.7. VOITLAND is a small shire subject to the Marquis. This <area> is called Advocatorum terram and also Prętorianam by Ęneas Syluius, {1598D, not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{<that is> the Sollicitors or Controllers land,}1598D, not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S} framing a word from the Etymology or true meaning of the German name, for Voyt in the German tongue means Solicitor or Controller, {1573L, 1579L and later{so named because once the Prince of this country was one of the four controllers of the Roman Empire}1573L, 1579L and later}. The towns of higher importance are the following, as Gaspar Bruschius lists them in Münsters Cosmography:
93.8. {not in 1598D{Curia Regnitiana, {1606E only{Renitz court,}1606E only} commonly called}not in 1598D} Hoff {not in 1598D{(so named after the rivers which run past it, emptying into <the> Sala}not in 1598D}, a large city and very populous, beautified with the excellent and stately Church of St. Michaėlis, a large Monastery for Nuns and two rich hospitals, <then> Plauhenium {1579L, not in 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S{or Plaun,}1579L, not in 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S} a city with a castle, Olsnitz with the castle {not in 1584L{Voytzberg close by}not in 1584L}, Adorff and Weidonium {1606E only{(I think Weyda),}1606E only} a fair town with certain Abbeys, Milfurt and Weissen-crown, Geraw, Schletz and whatever there is between Hof and Zeitz {1580/1589G has instead{Schwandorff}1580/1589G instead}, located on the river Elster {1606E, not in 1609/1612/1641S{(Hallestra is what the Romans call it)}1606E, not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
93.9. Near to this is Pineberg {1580/1589G has instead{Feichtelberg}1580/1589G instead}, that famous mountain {not in 1573L, 1580/1589G, 1588S & 1592L{which is covered plentifully with stately Pine-trees}not in 1573L, 1580/1589G, 1588S & 1592L}, from which four rivers spring and run {1573L, 1579L, 1584L, 1580/1589G, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1598D, 1601L, 1602S & 1608/1612I only{(a very strange work of Nature)}1573L, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1598D, 1601L, 1602S & 1608/1612I only} to four quarters of the world, namely <the> Egre, Meyn, Nabe and Sala. {1579L; not in 1598D{Wolfgang Iobstius has written an interesting description on the Marquesate of Brandenburg}1579L; not in 1598D}.
93.10. LVSATIA, {1580/1589G & 1606E only{<or> Laussnitz}1580/1589G & 1606E only} is divided into Ober Laussnitz and Nider Laussnitz, {1606E{<that is> Upper and Lower <Laussnitz>}1606E}. It is also a part of Saxony as Rithaymer testifies. It lies between the rivers Elbe and Oder, and the Bohemian mountains. Once it was part of Meisen (Misnia) and was joined to it. But the Bohemians, who laboured by all means to enlarge the bounds of their kingdom and command, finally seized it into their hands.
93.11. The people as regards manners, <living> conditions and language do not differ much from the Silesians, {not in 1598D{and are distinct <from them> in name and jurisdiction <only>, {1606E only{governed <as it is> by various Princes}1606E only}. The name and way of calling it Lusatia is somewhat close in sound to the name of the Elysij or Lygij who certainly dwelt here once, as Ioachimus Cureus writes}not in 1598D}. Their chief cities are Gorlitz, Sittaw and some others. The river Neiss runs through the middle of this country. {not in 1573L, 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L & 1598D{Gaspar Peucer has recently in Elegiac verse described it in a specific publication}not in 1573L, 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S & 1592L}. MISNIA {1606E only{(Meisen)}1606E only} and THVRINGIA {1606E only(Thuringen)}1606E only} are described and depicted in their respective maps, which we have hereafter inserted into this Theatre of the World of ours in their proper places.
93.12. A depiction and sketch of these countries, copied and portrayed from the Geographical Chart of Ioannes Criginger which was printed in Prague {1606E only{in Bohemia}1606E only} in the year of Christ 1568 has been included in our work here}1570L; not in 1598D}.

<Since the text from the 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1581 French, 1587 French and 1598 French editions differ considerably from the text just given, I will provide a separate translation of these merged editions here>.

93.13. {1571/1573D{Sassen.

93.14. Many Countries were formerly comprised under the name Sassen, <Saxony>, so that it extended from the river Weser in the West to the river Oder in the East, and in the North from the Sea all the way to the river Meyn and Bohemia in the South. But nowadays it no longer extends so far, nor does this Map, which only shows that part now called Saxony, with the areas Duringhen, Meyssen, Lausnitz and Voitlandt, about each of which we shall say something.
93.15. Among all the areas belonging to the title of Saxony we have only shown here those belonging to the Dukedom of Saxony, each with its own ruler. Among these Meydenborg is a very large City, as well as Wittenberg, which is an Electorate. These are the main cities, situated on the river Elbe. Myssen, situated between the river Elbe and Sael has the Cities of Myssen from which it derives its name, Kemnitz, Zwickaw, Aldenburg and the pleasant City of Leipzig, where they have a big Market twice a year. This Land is full of Silver mines.
93.16. The Land of Duringen lies between Myssen, Bruynsvvyck, Hessen and Franckelandt. Its capital is Erfordt, said to be the largest City of Germany, with a brook running through almost every street. Here is also the City called Gotha, about which it is thought that once the Goths lived there, and founded this City to their memory. In this Area there is much trade with woad <= red dye>, which is used by cloth dyers and which grows here in abundance. Voithland is a small country and belongs to the margraves. Its cities are Chulmbach, Parreyt and Hof.
93.17. In it lies Fichtelberg, about which we will report under Nortgevv. Lausnitz is divided into Upper-Lausnitz and Lower-Lausnitz, and all this lies under Saxony, yet, it belongs to the Crown of Bohemia. The main City here is Gorlitz. The river Spre runs along this Area. The Countries are all abundant as regards food, such as meat, fish and bread, which is very nice and white here. But there is not much wine growing here, or none at all. Beer is the common drink, and wine is imported from Franconia. The inhabitants are good people, usually more friendly in their manner of speech and behaviour than the Germans living further North}1571/1573D}.

<since the 1571 Latin edition contains a text deviating from the ones given above, a separate translation is provided below:>

93.18. {1571L{Saxonia.
Saxony, which still retains its old name, is bordered on the West by the river Weser, on the North it has the Danes or Cymbres, and the Baltic sea; in the East it has the river Oder, which in the writing of the ancients included the Viadri, Prussians and Silesians; in the South it has the Mœni and Bohemia, and in the East it has Mœnus near the Piniferus mountain range, which is in that area which is now called VOITLANDIA, subject to the Marquistae of Brandenburg. From there, four great rivers flow to the four principal directions of the world, a wonder to behold.
93.19. Thus, we have the Mœnus in the West, whereas the Egra flows in the East, where it empties into the Elbe in Bohemia; There is the Sala in the North, which also empties into the Elbe. The Nabus flows through Bavaria and in the West at Ratisbona flows into the Danube.
The cities of Voithlandia, as mentioned before in passing, are Chulmbach, Parreyt, and Hoff. The region of Saxony includes Thüringen, which has in the East the Misnij,in the West the Hessi, in the North Brunswick, and in the South Franconia, enclosed by the rivers Weser, Sala & Mœnus; Its main city is Erford, (which is considered to be the largest city of Germany).
93.20. The inhabitants of Thüringen derive their origin from the Goths, hence it can be understood that the Thüringers of Gothic descent use the word Gotha for the city they founded: This region is quite pleasant for those who live here. Plenty of herbs grow here everywhere, and they have excellent wool, which they call Quada, from which they yearly make all kinds of things for themselves. Saxony itself is divided into two regions of which the one is called Marchia, which is a recent name. It is waters by the river Oder, which reaches the Elbe. At its borders you find the cities of Witemberg, Magdeburg, Stendel, Osterburg, Hamburg, and Lubec, which is some distance away from the river Elbe.
93.21. The other part is in the East, brodering on Bohemia and Silesia, with the cities Francoford, Berlin, Brandeburg, Stetin, and Auelburg.
MISNIA is another part of this Saxony huis, also called the Superior part. It is located between the rivers Sala & Elbe; here once lived the Hermanduri & Sorabi, Slavonic tribes. Misnia lies at lake Mesia lacu, at which they may have lived, or else in the city of Meissen, which I find more probable, for it received its name from this city. Its cities then are Meissen, Chemnitz on the river mentioned, Suiccauia, Leipzig with its Academy, Altenburg and Mount St. Anna; this mountainous region has a lot of mines. Its rivers are the Moldau, Elbe & Sala.
93.22. LVSATIA is a small Kingdom, though subject to the Bohemians, yet intself tributary to Saxony. It lies between the rivers Elbe, Oder & the mountains of Bohemia. Its main city is Gorlitz. The Neisse waters this city. So far for Georg. Rithaymerus in his description of the world. More about these regions can be found in Pius.II. in his description of Europe, and in the work Saxonia, written by Witichindus. Of these regions we have here inserted into our work here the map drawn by Ioannis Criginger, which was published in Prage in the year 1568}1571L} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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