Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 092

Text (translated from the 1579/1580 Latin 2nd Add, 1579 Latin, 1580/1589 German, 1581 French, 1584 Latin, 1587 French, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1598 French & 1602 German editions)

92.1. {1579/1580L2Add{HASSIA.

92.2. The country of HESSEN, which was once an EARLDOM, now graced with the title of a LANDGRAVIATE, was formerly possessed by the CATTI, {1584L{as almost all writers of our time generally and truly believe}1584L}. Only Albertus Crantzius, to my knowledge, is of a different opinion, for he exerts himself to make the world believe that these Catti were those people who are now called Saxones. This province has on its East ThŘringen, on its South Frankenland, on its West Westphalen, and on its North the Duke of Brunswick <and> the bishop of Minden, and other Princes as its near neighbours.
92.3. It is a country very fertile in all manner of things necessary for the maintenance of mans life. It has no vines, except on that side which borders on the Rhein. MARPVRG and CASSELL are the chief and principal cities of this country. The latter <city> is adorned with the Princes court, {1598F, not in 1602G{and gatherings of Nobles, Gentlemen and other brave men following and attending them}1598F}. The other <city> is graced with an excellent University, {1598F{well frequented by students from all kinds of places in the area}1598F, not in 1602G}. In this Landgraviate there are also various other Counties or Earldoms, <such> as CATZENELEBOG, ZIEGENHEIM, NIDA and WALDECK, of all of which the Landgrave considers himself now to be the Lord}1581F, 1587F & 1588S end here for Hessen}.
92.4. But listen what Eobanus Hessus, that worthy poet says in a certain congratulatory poem of his, written and dedicated to Philip, the Landgrave of this country, at the occasion of the victory achieved by him at Wirtemburg, where he incidentally also speaks as follows about the nature and situation of this province, as well as about the manners of its people.
92.5. Qualis Hyperboreum prospectans Thraca Booten/ Gradius domus ad Rhodopen, Hemumque niualem/ Circumfusa iacet, gelides assueta pruinis,/ Gignit in arma viros duratos frigore, quique/ Aut Hebrum, Nessumque bibunt, aut Strymonis/ undas/: Talis & ipsa situ, talis regione locorum/ Et fluuijs silvisque frequens, & montibus altis/ Hassia: naturŠ similes creat alma locorum/ Ceu natos in bella viros, quibus omnis in armis/ Vita placet: non vlla iuuat sine Marte, nec vllam/ Esse putant vitam, quŠ non assueuerit armis./ Quod si tranquillŠ vertantur ad otia pacis,/ Otia nulla terunt sine magno vana labore:/ Aut duro patrios exercent vomere colles,//<new column> Ăquatosque solo campos rimantur aratris/ (Namque & planicies segetum fťcunda patentes/ Explicat innumeras, & plena messe colonos/ Ditat, & ipsa sibi satis est,) aut ardua sylvŠ/ Lustra petunt, canibusque feras sectantur odoris,/ Venatu genus assuetum, genus acre virorum;/
92.6. Aut leges & iura ferunt, aut oppida condunt Fortia, non sol¨m bello munimina, ver¨m/ QuŠ deceant in pace etiam, oblectentque quietos./ Quid sacros memorem fontes? quid amťna vireta?/ Quid valles ipsis certantes frugiferacis/ Vallibus ĂmoniŠ? dulces quid vbique recessus/ Musarum loca, consessu loca digna Dearum?/ O patriŠ gelidi fontes, ˘ flumina nota,/ O valles, ˘ antra meis notissima Musis! &c.
92.7. <in the 1580/1589G, 1602G and 1606E edition, this is translated as follows:>
{1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E only{In German/English prose briefly, this much: Hessen, in nature of its soil and temperature of its air is a country of all the world most similar to Thrace. This is so, because it is much covered by many tall and stately woods, beset and enclosed with the snow-topped mountains Hemus, Rhodope, PangŠus and Cercina, watered and fed by the chilly and frozen streaming rivers Hebrus, Nessui and Strimon. It breeds a hardy kind of people, fit for all kinds of service and toilsome travel. Here, as if they were descended from mighty Mars, their chief delight is war making, <as> no other kind of life pleases them half so well, nay, they think that otherwise there is no life at all, or at least not <a kind of life> worth living for a man enjoying martial feats and deeds of arms.
92.8. Yet, if all is quiet and Mars sleeps, they cannot stand to live in idleness and to spend their time at home. So them they either give themselves to farming and follow the plough, (for here the large and open excellent grounds with great advantage repay the farmers tenure and toils) or else, by hawking and hunting through thick and thin, in the darkest woods and most bushy forests over hedge and ditch, over the highest hills and lowest valleys follow their game most laboriously. Others take as great pains in commanding and ruling the commonwealth, ending controversies and seeing that the laws are duly observed and carried out. Others busy themselves in building and fortifying cities, making them not only strong against assault and battery of the enemy in time of war, but also gorgeous and beautiful to the great delight and astonishment of the beholders in time of peace.
92.9. What should I say about the excellent wholesome springs, the pleasant green meadows, pastures and valleys which in fruitfulness may justly contend with those of Thessalia {1579/1580L2Add & 1606E have instead{Ămonia}1579/1580L2Add & 1606E instead}, that fertile country in Greece so much recommended by Poets and Historians? Of the various and manifold pleasures and delightful places, brooks and clear running waters of this country? &c}1580/1589G, 1602G & 1606E only}.

92.10. HOLSATIA.

92.11. About Holstein, Crantzius <writes> like this in the twenty-seventh Chapter of his fifth book {not in 1581F, 1587F & 1598F{on the history of Saxony}not in 1581F, 1587F & 1598F}: Holsatia derived its name from a vernacular word of that language {1581F, 1587F & 1598F only{Holts <= wood>}1581F, 1587F & 1598F only}, because the country is woody and full of forests, to distinguish between these parts and those neighbouring near to it, which are marshy and green pasture grounds. The Saxons call the inhabitants Holsaten, that is, people dwelling amongst the woods. In contrast, they call those who dwell in fenny countries Merluden.
92.12. From that the Romans have formed the names Holsati, Holsatia {not in 1581F, 1587F & 1598F{like the French and Italians are used to enrich the Latin tongue from their own language}not in 1581F, 1587F & 1598F}. On the East this country has the river Bilene as its border, {1581F, 1587F & 1598F only{in German de Belt, in Latin Mare Balticum}1581F, 1587F & 1598F only}, on the West <the river> Store, on the South <the river> Elbe and on the North by <the river> Eydore, which in former times was the furthest border of Denmark.
92.13. From this river Eastwards {1581F & 1587F only{to the river Trauena}1581F & 1587F only} was where the Wandals, also called Wagers lived, by whom this province was named WAGRIA, after an ancient (and once populous) city of that name, now a poor village, little inhabited, without a wall, trench, rampart or fence. The houses are covered with reeds gathered in the fens, homely and rural. {not in 1581F & 1587F{It runs Eastwards as far as the river Travenna}not in 1581F & 1587F}.
92.14. That part of the country which from the river Bilene near the Elbe {1580/1589G & 1602G only{ and Eyder}1580/1589G & 1602G only} declines towards the river Store, and is called Stormare after that river, leaves but little territory to old Holsatia, <namely> from <the> Store to <the> Eydore. For the Diethmarshers, a people inhabiting moorish and fenny places, claim freedom and privilege from the jurisdiction of any other Prince.
92.15. This Crantzius in his time wrote about the state of Holstein as it then <was>. From which it is apparent that Holstein was divided into Thietmarsh, Wagria and Stormare. The same Crantzius and others also call these Holsaters Transalbianos and Nordalbianos since they are situated beyond and North of the river Elbe. {not in 1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1598F & 1602G{Ado also calls them Northvidos, under whom are included, as the same author and Helmoldus write, the Stormaren, Holsaters and Thietmarshers}not 1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1598F & 1602G}.
92.16. He who wrote about the wars between the Danes and the Dietmarshers (we do not know his name) describes these countries somewhat differently than the writers named before have done. For he states that Holstein, as it is now called, generally comprises the Dukedom of Sleswick, Wagria, Stormare, Dietmarsh and Iuitland, <together> with certain other smaller countries and islands, such as Angle-land, Swant-land and {not in 1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1598F & 1602G{Wensusset}not in 1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1598F & 1602G}, anciently called Cimbrica Chersonesus.
92.17. But this limitation is somewhat too extreme, for the same author immediately after writes that Holstein is properly bounded by those four rivers within which Crantzius restrains it. Although Annonius Monachus, as he cites there, instead of the river Eyder places on the North side the wall and trench which the people call Denwerk. And this is the Holstein which this Map of ours presents to your view. That the Cimbri, a warlike people, inhabited this area long since is very clear from the writings of most approved authors.
92.18. In Wagria Crantzius lists these cities: Oldenburgh, Lutkenburgh, Niestade, Todeslo, Zegebergh, Plone &c. In Stormare, Hamburgh, Reinoldesborgh, Itzeho, Niemunster &c. Dietmarsh has no cities. They only dwell in villages <there>, and we have written elaborately about it in its proper place}1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L & 1602G end here} ę Marcel van den Broecke ę.

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