Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 086

Text (translated from the 1595 Latin, 1597 German 5th Add., 1598 Dutch, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish and the 1609/1612 Latin edition)

86.1. {1595L5Add{DENMARK

86.2. {not in 1598D{Saxo Grammaticus has described Denmark as follows}not in 1598D}: DENMARK, {not in 1598D{he says}not in 1598D}, <is> separated in the middle by the boisterous sea, contains a few small parts of the mainland, separated and disjoined from one another by the intrusion of the ocean winding and turning itself in various ways. Of these <we find> IVTIA, {1597G5Add, 1602G, 1602S & 1606E only{Iuitland}1597G5Add, 1602G, 1602S & 1606E only} located with respect to its size and beginning, at the entrance of the kingdom of Denmark. Since it is situated at the entrance, so it extends further, and is situated at the utmost borders of Germany, from whose borders it is separated by the intruding river Eyder which runs broadening out towards the North, {not in 1598D{all the way to the banks of the coast of Norway {1606E only{(called by him Fretum Noricum)}1606E only}. In it, you find the bay of Lemwick (Sinus Lymicus) which abounds with such quantities of fish that only this <bay> provides as much provision of food to the inhabitants as the whole remainder of the country.
86.3. It is linked to FRESIA {1601L, 1602S, 1603L & 1608/1612I only{Minor}1601L, 1602S, 1603L & 1608/1612I only}{1606E only{(Strand Friesen)}1606E only}, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{a province much smaller, lying lower than Iutland with plain and flat fields}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. It receives water from the sea which inundates it with great strength and courage, and it is very fertile in corn. It is hard to say whether <the sea> in its inundations and violent tides brings the country people more profit, or more damage. For in tempestuous weather, when the Sea breaks in through the creeks which normally contain water, such a mass of water often comes and pours into the country that at various times it overflows not only the shallow fields, but also drowns entire families with their goods and cattle}not in 1598D}. {1598D only{Denmark has many islands}1598D only}.
86.4. After Iutland follows the island of FIONA (Fuinen) in the East, which is separated from the mainland by a narrow arm of the ocean. This island looks out upon Iutland towards the West, and towards the East it has the island SEELAND, {not in 1597G5Add, 1598D & 1609/1612L{(Sialandia he calls it)}not in 1597G5Add & 1609/1612L}, an island much recommended for the great abundance of all kinds of necessary things that it yields}not in 1598D}, which for its excellent location is thought to excel above all the provinces of this kingdom. It is regarded as <being> the middle of Denmark, equally situated between one end of it and the other.
86.5. {not in 1597G5Add, 1598D & 1602G{On the East side of this there runs an arm of the ocean between it <= this island> and}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} SCONE, {1606E only{(Scania, Scandinavia, Basilia and Baltia, as it is called by various authors)}1606E only}, {not in 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L & 1608/1612I{a part of Norway or Swedland}not in 1598D, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L & 1608/1612I}. This sea affords good income to the Fishermen each year. For this whole bay, or gulf of the sea is so full of all sorts of fish that the fishermen often catch so much fish, {not in 1597G5Add, 1598D & 1602G{and they load their boats so much with them, that they have no room to move their oars}not in 1597G5Add, 1598D & 1602G}, nor do they use any nets here, or other means to catch fish, but often they are caught <just> by hand.
86.6. {not in 1598D{<Then there are> moreover HALLAND and BLIEKER {1606E only{(Blekinga he calls it),}1606E only} two provinces issuing forth from the mainland of Scone like two arms from one and the same body of a tree, at many places and corners joined and fixed to Gotland and Norway. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{So far Saxus Grammaticus}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. See also Albert Crantzius, Sebastian Münster {1601L{and the ecclesiastical history by M. Adams}1601L; not in 1598D}.
86.7. The kingdom of NORWAY is subject to the crown of Denmark as is also the isle of GOTLAND. The same (if you believe Marcus Iordanus in his map of Denmark) <applies to> the islands of Groenland, Island, Hetland, Farre and the Orcades. Yet we have said before that the Orcades <= Orkney isles> belong to the kingdom of Scotland, under the name and title of a Dukedom.
{1598D only{About these <Orkney islands> I will relate what I heard from a trustworthy man, namely about Christianus, Earl of Oldenborch and first chosen King of Denmark, who gave his bastard daughter Margareta in marriage to Iacobus the Third more than 120 years ago, who had asked for this through an envoy. And he promised a dowry of sixty thousand guilders. He received ten thousand, and for the rest he received the Orcades islands as a pawn, under the condition that the King of Denmark could at any time redeem it by furnishing the remainder of the money, which has not happened up to the present time}1598D only}.
Olaus also says, but incorrectly, as I persuade myself, that the isle of Gotland belongs to the kingdom of Swedland.
86.8. GOTHIA, or the isle of Gotland, is a good place for the feeding and bringing up of cattle, horses and oxen. There is plentiful fishing, fowling and hunting. It is very rich in a kind of fair marble, as also in all kinds of things necessary to maintain one's life. On it is the worthy town of Visby, once the most famous and best frequented Market of all of Europe. There are still remnants of marble remaining, <providing> sufficient testimony to its ancient greatness and beauty. Presently, it is famous for its fair Abbey of the Benedictine Friars, and its Library contains about 2000 {1597G5Add & 1602G have instead{200}1597G5Add & 1602G instead} books of various authors, <and> rare and ancient manuscripts. {not in 1598D{So far for Olaus Magnus and Iacobus Zieglerus}not in 1598D}.

86.9. CIMBRICA CHERSONESVS {1597G5Add, 1602G & 1606E only{now called IUITLAND}1597G5Add, 1602G & 1606E only}.

86.10. {1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{Its name is Cimbrica Chersonesis and Chersonesis is a Greek word, which does not occur in other languages, neither in Latin, nor in any other language. It means neither isle or peninsula but it means land. Yet it is on all sides surrounded by the sea, and has only one entrance with firm soil}1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only}. Cimbrica Chersonesus from which the Cimbri around the year 105 before the incarnation of Christ came forth and spread themselves over other countries of Europe, to the great terror and fright of all Italy, stretches itself from the river Elbe to the North for about 80 miles, and contains many large and excellent shires. {1602S{It is part of the kingdom of Denmark, which M<r>. Adams calls Daniam Cismarinam, <or> Denmark on this side of the sea}1602S}. At the entrance of which, as one comes from Saxony, here lies HOLSATIA, Holstein, which ancient writers, since it is disjoined and separated from the rest of Germany, designate, <since it lies> towards the North, by the river Elbe (Albis they call it), <with the name> NORDALBINGIA.
86.11. And because of this, it was always considered the utmost Northern frontier of the Roman Empire. And therefore Henry, surnamed Auceps, {1597G5Add, 1602G & 1606E only{the Fowler,}1597G5Add, 1602G & 1606E only} Emperor of Rome, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{since about 650}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} had here in the city of Sleswick somewhat beyond the limits of the Empire, a Lieutenant and Lord-warden of the Marches. Holstein contains {not in 1602S{three}not in 1602S} principal shires, WAGRIA, STORMAR, and DITMARSH, of which Frederick the Emperor about 106 years ago made a Dukedom. The next province, <counted from> the river Eyder, which is the furthest frontier of Holstein, even into Kolding, contains the Dukedom of Sleswick, so named after the chief city and most ancient market town of this country, Sleswick.
86.12. In former times this country was entitled with the name of the Dukedom of Iutland, which Waldemar, the great-grandchild of Abel, king of Denmark, first held in homage from Erik, their king, around the year of Christ 1280. Since the male line of the Kings and Dukes failed, and since the Dukedom of Sleswick and the kingdom of Denmark were united and knit closely together, Queen Margareta, heir to the three crowns, granted the Dukedom of Sleswick to Gerard, Duke of Holstein. <She did this> on the condition that he should acknowledge his tenure from the king of Denmark.
86.13. The rest of Cimbrica Chersonesus, called North Iutland, stretches itself towards Norway via Scagen (a town well known to sailors because of its quicksand and the shallowness of the sea here), {not in 1598D{becoming pointed and narrow like a wedge <at its end>}not in 1598D}. This province is <at its> broadest around Alborch, a market town lying at an inlet from the sea which they call Lymford; for there it falls into Iutland and pierces almost quite through it Westwards, dividing Wensussel {not in 1598D{(except for a very small piece of land)}not in 1598D} and making it into a Peninsula or Neckland.
86.14. From there it branches out in greater breadth, enclosing and surrounding many worthy islands, putting out many elbows and branches. <Thus> it borders on various shires and countries. In this Bay is an island, which Otho the first, {not in 1598D{Emperor of Rome}not in 1598D} around the year after Christ's incarnation 960, called Ottonia. After which the whole stretch of land at this island is called Otthesund {1606E only{or commonly Odsunt}1606E only}. That island is now called Tyrhalm, so named, I suppose, after Tyra, the mother of king Harald, who after the departure of Emperor Otho from Iutland, caused all the country from Sleswick Northwards to be fenced with a wall {not in 1597G5Add, 1601L, 1602G & 1603L{and a deep trench}not in 1597G5Add, 1601L, 1602G & 1603L}.
86.15. {not in 1598D{On that island there is today a village called Odby, where they suppose that the Iutes overthrew the Emperor and his forces. This is what the author of this map himself has written about the whole province}1595L5Add; not in 1598D} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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