Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 083

Text (translated from the 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598 Dutch, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian and 1609/1612 Latin edition).


83.2. Nobody, I think, doubts that the Cauchi, and not the Frisij inhabited this region in former times. {1598D only{This is confirmed by many writers describing the World, particularly Plinius, who divides the Chauci into the Greater and the Lesser}1598D only}. {not in 1598D{Next to Strabo, Dion, Suetonius, Paterculus, and Æl. Spartianus, you will also find this in Ptolemæus (who distinguishes between The Greater and The Lesser) {not in 1606E{as also Plinius}not in 1606E}. Ptolemæus puts the Greater Gauchi between the rivers Weser and Elbe, the Lesser between the rivers Eems and Weser where now these Frieslanders which we call East-Frieslanders dwell. Of the Cauchi, Plinius in the first Chapter of his sixteenth book speaks like this: in the North we have seen, he says, the country of the Cauchi, the Greater and the Lesser, (as they are termed), {1606E only{altogether void of wood and trees}1606E only}.
83.3. For through a huge inlet there, twice every day and night by the tides, the sea runs in, confusedly covering whatever the earth in general brings forth, leaving it unclear what is sea and what is land. There, the innocent, distressed people get themselves to the tops of high hills, or mounds they have raised, by the labour and industry of man (according to the height of the highest tide, as they find out by experience) and on those they build their poor cottages, where they dwell like sailors floating on the water when the flowing ocean surrounds them. Or like those who have suffered shipwreck, when the waters, ebbing, retreat again. And then they come out, to fish around their cabins, observing that the fish follow the tide.
83.4. They have no cattle, and do not live on milk, and dairy products as their neighbours do. They hunt no wild animals, being far from any shrubs or bushes where they might hide their heads. Of Reike, a kind of seaweed, and reeds growing in the washes and boggy places they twist cords, of which they make their fishing nets. And taking up a kind of muddy earth with their hands, drying it with the wind, and then with the sun, they use it for fuel to cook their meat, and to heat their houses, stiff as they are with the cold blasts of the Northern winds.
83.5. They have no other drink than rain water, which they collect and keep in ditches in the porches of their houses. If these nations today would be conquered by the Romans, they would consider that as slavery or bondage. That is the way it is, fortune is favourable to some to their own detriment and hindrance. Thus Plinius writes about these people.
83.6. Nobody would be surprised that they prefer freedom above the tyrannous rule of the Romans. I would rather think that he envies them that they remained free of their yoke. For it is not such a wonderful thing as he makes it out to be, for a free nation, to maintain their freedom, which is such an excellent thing in his judgement.
83.7. {not in 1598F{Oh Plinius, you who yourself highly recommend it above anything else, you who persuade us to preserve it with the utmost efforts of our life, and affirm it worthy to be desired and preferred not only in man, but even for wild animals, above anything the world}not in 1598D & 1598F}.
83.8. This country was in former times divided into many Signiories, which were each governed by their own specific Princes, even up to the time of Fredericus the third, Emperor of Rome. who gave this whole country to a certain Ulricke and appointed him Earl of it, in the year after Christ's birth 1465.
83.9. The soil of this land is so rich in all it needs, that it seems to be in no great need of help from neighbouring countries. It abounds plentifully with various things, as Horses, Oxen, Cattle, Hogs, Wool, Butter, Cheese, Barley, Oats, Wheat, Beans, Peas {not in 1598D{and Salt}not in 1598D}, commodities that from here they every year send in great quantities to foreign countries. This County has only two walled cities, namely Emden and Aurick. Of these, EMDEN, situated at the mouth of the river Eems, the general market town of the whole province for Merchants to gather, is particularly famous because of its accessibility and its harbour, which thrusts itself so far into the heart of the city, so wide and deep, that it easily receives and accommodates big ships, fully loaded, in full sail, into it very centre.
83.10. The city is highly beautified by the sumptuous palace of the Prince, a splendid Church, the Guild hall, and the splendid houses of the private citizens. AVRICK, because of the woods and groves which surround it, is inhabited mostly by Gentlemen and Noblemen. Here they recreate and enjoy Hawking and Hunting. Within the realm of this city there is, {not in 1598F{as Kempius reports, a place called locus Tyl, surrounded by a wall, full of bushes, and a commodious place for Hares and Deer, in which {1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1606E & 1608/1612I only{as in a zoo}1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1606E & 1608/1612I only} they keep a great number of these animals, which no one may take or there will be a severe penalty. They are reserved for the Earls' amusement and pastime, when he likes to divert himself by hunting.
83.11. Within the bounds of this city Aurick there is a little hill rising to some height (commonly called Obstalsboom {1606E only{or Upstalsbom}1606 only} where the seat of Justice or Court for the whole area is held. Here they used to meet every {1592L, 1595L, 1598D, 1601L, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L have instead{twice per}1592L, 1595L, 1598D, 1601L, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L only} year, coming from all the {1592L, 1595L, 1598D, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L only{seven}1592L, 1595L, 1598D, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L only} Sea Lands, in the open and wild fields, to discuss and resolve, with the help of the most skilful and qualified lawyers, such as best knew their customs and laws, all controversies arising between one person and the other}not in 1598F}. In this area there are also various castles, villages and farms. Of hamlets and settlements there are so many that often one touches the other.
83.12. Most of these are so excellent, both as regards the beauty of their houses and streets, as also for the multitude of inhabitants and foreigners, that they may in honour and greatness contend with other cities of Germany.
83.13. The people occupy themselves with trade as Merchants, or make a living by jobs and handicraft, or by being farmers and tilling the soil. With their neighbours and foreigners they speak in the Dutch language, whereas among themselves they use a peculiar language, belonging to that nation and not understood by foreigners. They are nicely dressed, even the simplest country people, so that one would take them to be citizens. The women wear a kind of clothing which differs much from that of other nations. They tie all the hair on their head into one strain, which they allow to hang free on their back, embellishing it with various silver objects and guilded spangles and buttons.
83.14. They cover their head in Summer with a cloth of silk of a red colour, so that you can hardly see their eyes. This kind of attire they call a Hatte. The upper garment {not in 1598D{(huick {1601L & 1603L have instead{hatte}1601L & 1603L instead} or loose gown)}not in 1598D} which they wear outside is from the top to the bottom equipped with many small plaits, and stands so stiff with silver and guilded wire or plates that when it is taken off, it will stand upright <by itself>. This is sometimes made of red cloth, sometimes of green cloth. In this country of East-Friesland there are also two other counties, one called Esens, the other Ieueren, after the name of their chief towns}1592L, 1595L, 1598F, 1598D & 1608/1612I end here}. {1601L{About the situation in this province, its nature and the manners of its people, read Ubbo Emmius}1601L} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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