Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 081

Text (translated from the 1579/1580L2Add, 1579 Latin, 1580/1589 German, 1581 French, 1584 Latin, 1587 French, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598 Dutch, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian and 1609/1612 Latin edition)


81.2. Friesland is at this day divided {not in 1608/1612I{by the river Eems}not in 1608/1612I} into West-Friesland and East-Friesland. West-Friesland, {1608/1612I has instead{East Friesland}1608/1612I instead} which we offer here to your view by most ancient rights claims for itself the name Friesland, and was always esteemed <to be> the better <of the two>. For this country had its own king until the days of Charles the Great {1580/1589G & 1602G have instead{the Fifth}1580/1589G & 1602G instead}, after whose death this province was afflicted in various ways and suffered the most grievous storms of fortune's wrath, although before that time it had also often been assaulted and battered by the Danes and Norwegians. Yes, but most of all by the raging Ocean, a steady and roaring enemy of this country, by flooding it, beating it, tearing and rending its dikes and banks, it has badly damaged it, and yet will not come to rest.
81.3. How it has in more recent days been troubled by the Bishops of Utrecht and the Earls of Holland, I think everybody remembers well. But finally, in the days of Charles the fifth, a very peaceful Prince, it enjoyed peace and rest from all former troubles. Presently they divide it into three parts, Westergoe, Oostergoe and Seven{not in 1598D{wolden}not in 1598D}, which in turn are divided into 29 {1602G has instead{19}1602G instead} Gretanies {1598D instead has{places}1598D} {not in 1581F, 1587F & 1598D{(as they vulgarly call them in the mother tongue)}not in 1581F, 1587F & 1598D}, <that is> Courts or important places appointed for executing justice.
81.4. Moreover, on this map is depicted the territory of the renowned city of Groningen, as also that area which they call Ommeland {1581F & 1587F only{after a region across the river Yssel}1581F & 1587F only}. To these are bordered {not in 1581F & 1587F{Overysel}not in 1581F & 1587F}, Drent and Twent, countries with a fat and fertile soil, well inhabited, full of villages and hamlets, breeding also plenty of cattle.
81.5. West Friesland has thirteen cities, GROENINGEN, most famous for having brought forth the learned Rodolphus Agricola. DAM, LIEWERDT, with its fair castle. Here are kept the Court or place of Parliament and Chancery, as they commonly call it. DOCKVM, the place where the famous Mathematician Gemma Frisius was born {1580/1589G & 1602G only{that is, who through liberal arts and good education, has been highly appreciated}1580/1589G & 1602G only}. FRANICHER, a common palace, and a place of retreat where Noblemen and Gentry of this country retire for their pleasure.
81.6. BOLSWART and SNEECK, where Ioachim Hopper, a very learned and worthy man was born. ILST, SLOTEN and HARLINGEN on a bay of the German Ocean (which they call Suyderzee) has a commodious harbour, guarded by a strong castle to defend it against attack and assault from the enemy. WORCKVM and HINDELOPEN, on the same bay. Finally STAVEREN which in former times has been a mighty city, but now, having endured many bitter storms and floods of the sea, is no longer so famous or great. Next to these, there are 490 villages or parishes, of which various are endowed with great privileges, with many rich farmers.
81.7. It has many Monasteries, so that, as regards the beauty of their towns, cultivation of the land and stately Abbeys, Friesland is no less than any country whatsoever. That there are in this province many gentlemen, descended from honourable families, with houses and farms in various places of the region, but no Barons or free Lords is caused partly by the misfortunes just mentioned, partly by the fact that they are satisfied with their own estate and liberty, and have not followed the courts of foreign Princes.
81.8. Petrus Oliuarius in his annotations on Pomponius Mela, where he speaks of {not in 1581F, 1587F & 1608/1612I{West}not in 1581F, 1587F & 1608/1612I} Friesland, writes that in such a small area he never saw so many parish Churches. There are <people>, he says, who attribute the multitude of Churches to the following: they report that a heated debate arose amongst the nobility of this country about where to sit in Church, where everyone claimed the first seat. And when this strife grew worse an worse, they decided, as many as were able, to build each of them their own church, each on his own domain, so that everyone of them could take the highest seat in his own <church>, and this was the cause for building so many Churches. {not in 1598F & 1602G{So far Oliuarius, where you may also see many other things worth reading about}not in 1598F & 1602G}.
81.9. Read also in Saxonia by Albertus Cranzius. But who desires more knowledge about this province should take recourse to the description of the Low countries by Ludovicus Guicciardini}1579/1580L2Add, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1587F, 1598F & 1602G end here}. {1579L{Ælsius Edouardus Leon Frisius has described this country in Heroic verse, dedicated to D. Viglius Zwichemus}1579L, 1584L end here}. {1592L{Cornelius Kempius and Suffridus Petrus have done the same more extensively in specific treatises}1592L ends here}. {1595L{The learned Hieronymus Verrutius has recently promised to describe the antiquities of this Country}1595L, 1601L & 1608/1612I end here; not in 1598D} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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