Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 077

Text (translated from the 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598 Dutch, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish and 1609/1612 Latin edition)

77.1. {1592L{FLANDERS.

77.2. {not in 1598D{The extreme part of Europe, opposite England {1606E only{and Scotland}1606E only}, surrounded by France, Germany and the Ocean, is by the inhabitants called The Low Countries, or lower Germany. But the French and all strangers call it by the name of Flanders. But indeed, Flanders is not very large. For even if}not in 1598D} Flanders, as it is properly called was larger in former times, it is <now> bounded by Brabant, Henault, Artois and the Ocean, {1598D only{between the rivers Schelde in the East and the Aa in the West}1598D only}.{1598F only has a different beginning, viz.{Flandres is famous as the best country of all Christianity. The regions of Brabant, Haynault & Artois serve as its borders, therefore it extends on one side along the sea, towards the East it lies between the River Escaut <= Schelde> and the river Aa towards the west}1598F only}. They divide this into three parts, namely Dutch, French {1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{or Wallon}1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only} and Imperial Flanders, which last part, (because it never acknowledged any superior next to the Prince of Flanders) they also name Flanders proper. Dutch Flanders has these cities: Gendt, Brugghe, Yperen, Cortrijcke, Oudenaerde with Pammele, Niewport, Vuerne, Wijnox-Bergen, Sluys, Damme, Biervliet, Dixmuyden, Cassel, Duijnkercke, Grevelinghe, Borborch, and Hulst. French Flanders {1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{or Walona}1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only}: Rijssel, Douay and Orchies. And Flanders Imperial or proper: Aelst, Dendermonde, Geertsberge and Ninoven.
77.3. {this in paragraph 4 in 1598D{The principal rivers are Scheld, Lys and Dender. Most of the region is pasture ground, especially towards the West. It breeds fair oxen, and most excellent and warlike horses. It abounds with butter and cheese, and yields wheat in abundance. Most of the inhabitants are merchants, and of flax (of which in Flanders they have plenty, of excellent quality) and wool (which is brought to them from Spain and England) they make great quantities of linen and woollen cloth, which they export far and wide}in paragraph 4 in 1598D}.
77.4. {not in 1598F{This Province of Flanders has 28 walled cities, and 1154 {1598D has instead{1153}1598D} villages, next to fortresses, castles and noblemen's houses. Among which Gendt is the greatest city. {not in 1598D{Erasmus of Rotterdam in his Epistles writes about it in the following manner: I am of the opinion (he says) {1592L, 1595L, 1598F, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L & 1608/1612I only{if you look all over the Christian world, that you shall not find a city comparable to this}1592L, 1595L, 1598F, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L & 1608/1612I only}, {not in 1598F{either in size or strength, or in civil government and kindness of the people. So far for Erasmus}not in 1598D & 1598F}.
77.5. It measures in circumference three Dutch miles. It is watered by three rivers, {1598D & 1598F only{the Schelde, Lieue and Leye}1598D & 1598F only} which divide it into twenty inhabited islands. {1598D & 1598F only{These are connected by 98 bridges. It is a true merchant city, full of people, strongly situated, also by means of a castle built there by Charles the Fifth, who was born here in the year 1500. This city harbours Lions, who sometimes get cubs}1598D & 1598F only}. In multitude and beauty of its houses, Bruges surpasses almost all the cities of the Netherlands {1598F only{and has very beautiful women}1598F only}. It had such a famous market in former times that (says Iacobus Marchantius {1598D & 1598F have instead{Aloysius Cadamostus of Venice}1598D & 1598F instead}) the name of Flanders obscures all the regions around it. {1598D & 1598F only{Here is still the staple with all the wool imported from Spain and England}1598D & 1598F only}. Yperen {1598D & 1598F only{has the most splendid and largest market of all cities in the area, (as Guicciardini writes), with a marvellous, very large building called the Hall. Here is a large yearly market during Lenten pastoral where Linen and Say, woven here in great quantities, are traded}1598D & 1598F only}. {not in 1598F{It lies at the river of Yperlee, very convenient for Fullers. By <its> clothing <industry> it grew in former times to a huge size, until the English {not in 1602G{and the men of Gent}not in 1602G} besieged it, destroyed the large suburbs, and diminished <its significance>}not in 1598F}. {1598D & 1598F only{Rijssel is located at the river Duele. Here they weave Say. They are industrious and wealthy people as a result of the trade of merchandise conducted here, and therefore it is also called Little Antwerp. Douay on the river Scarpe is a splendid city with beautiful fountains. A University was recently founded here. But we do not have the space here to describe all cities, which has been done very diligently by our friend Ludowico Guicciardino. Anyone who feels like it, may read that, and learn about all particulars concerning Flanders}1598D and 1598F only}.
77.6. {not in 1598D & 1598F{As the saying goes, Milan as a Dukedom surpasses the Christian world. So does Flanders as an Earldom. It has certain prerogatives. For its Prince considers himself Earl of Flanders by the grace of God, which is a proper title in the style of Kings. For it <= this title> is given (says Meierus) to no Duke, Marquis or Earl in the Christian world, but only to him of Flanders, while others usually add By the clemency, or By the assistance of God, &c. He had in former times various officers for the King only, namely his Chancellor, his Master of the horse, his Chamberlain and his Cup-bearer, as well as two Marshals and twelve {1606E has instead{ten}1606E instead} Peers, as in France. The <coat of> arms used to be a escutcheon in Azure, divided by five Cross-bars of gold with another small red escutcheon in the middle. Now it is a black lion in a golden field, which, some think, he took for his <coat of> arms, together with the other Dutch Princes when they set forth on their expedition towards Syria in the company of Philip of Elzas. For at that time the princes of Flanders, Lovaine, Holland, Lutzenburg, Limburg, Brabant, Zeland, Frisland, Henault &c. changing their ancient <coats of> arms, adopted for themselves lions of various colours}not in 1598D & 1598F}.
77.7. The greater part of Flanders was from the beginning under the protection of the French Kings. But now it is at liberty, and fully independent, being released by Emperor Charles the fifth, Earl of Flanders, who in the treaty of Madrid entirely shook off the French yoke. {not in 1598D & 1598F{This region has been described most diligently by Guicciardini, and most learnedly by Iacobus Marchantius. You may also read the ten volumes by Iacobus Meierus on Flanders' affairs}1592L; not in 1598D & 1598F} Marcel van den Broecke .

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