Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 072

Text (translated from the 1579/1580L2Add, 1579 Latin, 1580/1589 German, 1581 French, 1584 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598 Dutch, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish and the 1609/1612 Latin edition)

72.1. {1601L, 1602S & 1603L only{ARTESIA}1601L & 1603L only},{1579/1580L2Add{ARTOIS}1602S only}{1608/1612I has instead(The Earldom of Artesia named Artoes}1608/1612I instead}{1609/1612/1641S has instead{Artesia, Artois}1609/1612/1641S instead).

72.2. That the inhabitants of Artois were not the least important people of Gallia Belgica is stated by Iulius Csar himself. They are and <always> have been a belligerent nation, who have to the present day retained their ancient name. The main city, in Latin called Atrebatum was formerly also the Metropolitan <city> of Flanders. Now it is in French called Arras, after which the adjacent region and the entire Province is called Artois, as if you would say Arratois and omit the second syllable. {not in 1598D{More recently they call it by the new Latin name of Artesia}not in 1598D}.
72.3. The whole region was {1595L, not in 1602G{by St. Louis, the French King}1595L, not in 1602G}, adorned with the title of an Earldom. {1595L, not in 1598F & 1602G{And its first Earl was Robert, a brother of the King just mentioned, as Vignier writes}1595L, not in 1598F & 1602G}. It is very large, extending <as it does> from the frontiers of Cambresis, Picardia, Henault and Flanders, all the way to the <Atlantic> Ocean.
72.4. In former times it was subject to the Crown of France, but now, as a result of the peace made between Emperor Charles the Fifth and Franciscus the first, French King, in 1529 {1598D has instead{1526}1598D}, it is now a fully independent state by itself. It has two renowned cities, namely Arras and {1579/1580L2Add, 1601L & 1603L only{the sanctuary of}1579/1580L2Add, 1601L & 1603L only} St. Omer. <Further> important towns are Ayre, Hesdin, Lens, Bethune, Bapaulme, {1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1584L, 1601L & 1603L only{the sanctuary of}1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1584L, 1601L & 1603L only} St. Paul, Lille and Perne, all of which are subject to the Catholic King. The cities of Bouloigne, Calais, Guisnes and Ardes (which are also located within the borders of this County) {not in 1598D{belong to the French Kings, for Morinum {1581F, 1598F, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S have instead; 1608/1612I additionally{Terrouana}1581F, 1598F, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead, 1608/1612I additionally} has now been destroyed}not in 1598D}.
72.5. It also has various fortresses and strongholds, next to an incredible number of noblemen's castles, which they use as places for dwelling. It contained since a long time two famous Bishoprics, namely Arras and Morinensis, {1581F, 1598F, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S have instead; 1608/1612I additionally{Terrouana}1581F, 1598F, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead; 1608/1612I additionally}. But since Morinum {1581F, 1598F, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{Terranouana}1581F, 1598F, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead} was utterly destroyed in the year 1553, its jurisdiction was distributed over three Episcopal sees, namely St. Omer and Ypre for one half, and Boulogne for the remainder.
72.6. <Of> bailiwicks or Hundreds, being the principal members or parts of the whole County it has nine, namely those of Arras, of St. Omer, Morinum, {1581F, 1598D, 1598F, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{Terrouana}1581F, 1598D, 1598F, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead}, Ayre, Hesdin, Lens, Bapaulme, Aven, Bredenard and Aubigny. Under the bailiwicks of Arras are comprised Boulogne, {1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1584L & 1603L only{the sanctuary of}1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1584L & 1603L only} St. Paul, Perne, Bethune and Lilers, but Calais, Guisnes and Ardres by ancient right belong to St. Omer. Similarly the Earl of Artois had other, inferior Earls as his vassals, namely the Earl of Boulogne, of St. Paul, of Arcques, of Blangie, of Faukenberge and of Syneghen. Now it has also been augmented with the Princedom {not in 1580/1589G & 1602G{of Espinee}not in 1580/1589G & 1602G} and the Marquisate of Renty.
72.7. But how Boulogne first exempted itself from the jurisdiction of Artois is clear from historical accounts. Because, after a certain Earl of Boulogne was convicted for treason against the French King, the King used that occasion to seize this Earldom, and ever since, he has denied recognition to Artois. For which reason the Earl of Artois, having lost half of his right, immediately appropriated for himself homage or fealty over the County of St. Paul, (which previously was subjected to the Earl of Boulogne), repeating over and over that he would not <suffer to> be deprived of both his homage and under-homage.
72.8. As a result the Princes on both sides have practised the custom that Boulogne no more acknowledges Artois, than St. Paul acknowledges Boulogne. However, in the later peace treaty of 1559 opinions were at variance, and since the matter was therefore referred to Commissioners, it remains as yet undecided, with the King of Spain still holding possession.
72.9. It is commonly assumed that Calais (being the harbour on the continent closest to England) was by Csar called Portus Iccius, from where he sailed from France {1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1598D, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L & 1608/1612I have instead{the Low Countries}1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1598D, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L & 1608/1612I instead} to it England. But if we consider the matter more thoroughly, we shall find out that it was another harbour, namely the town of Saint Omer, which used to be a harbour with a very large inlet from the Ocean. Even the high cliffs which almost surround this city, next to many other monuments and relics from antiquity, plainly show that and provide such convincing evidence that no one needs to further confirm it, that the adjacent area was in former times covered by the sea, the truth of which is still, to this very day, confirmed as well by common and continuous reports.
72.10. Yes, Sithieu, the ancient name of this city (for everyone knows that the name of St. Omer is only a very recent one) points in the same direction, as if it were derived from {not in 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S{Sinus Itthius or}not in 1579L, 1580/1589G 1584L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S} {1579/1580L2Add, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1598D, 1598F, 1601L. 1602G, 1602S, 1603L & 1609/1612I only{Iccius}1579/1580L2Add, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1598D, 1598F, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L & 1608/1612I only}. Also that the harbour mentioned was in the province of the Morini {1581F & 1598F have instead{Terrouane}1581F & 1598F instead}, by Vergilius and Lucanus called {1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1581F, 1584L, 1595L, 1598F, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L & 1609/1612L only{Extremos hominum}1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1581F, 1584L, 1595L, 1598F, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L & 1609/1612L only}, the people who live farthest away. And that this is most true is something the attentive Reader can easily conclude from many parts of Csar where he describes his departure to and return from England.
72.11. Nor is the distance of thirty miles or thereabout which he says the island is located from the main land an objection to my conviction. For the violence of the sea (especially in so narrow a place) may easily extend this distance, or diminish it. Nor does the distance of the sea from the main <island> to the continent vary much. Let it suffice that this much has been said concerning Portus Iccius. Whether we have hit upon the truth or not is for others to judge.
72.12. In addition, this Province had three bishoprics, to wit Arras, St. Omer and Boulogne {1579/1580L2Add, 1579, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1598F & 1602G have instead, 1601L, 1602S & 1603L additionally{various monasteries}1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1598F & 1602G instead, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L & 1608/1612I additionally}. <Among which> {not in 1595L & 1601L{twenty-eight}not in 1595L & 1601L} Abbeys {1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1598F & 1602G only{of which the best known are St. Vaast d'Arras, St. Bertin in St. Omer, St. Saluator d'Anchin, & Mount St. Eloy}1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1598F & 1602G only} {1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L & 1608/1612I only{namely 21 for men}1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L & 1608/1612I only}{not in 1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1598F & 1602G{and seven Nunneries next to many Convents and Hospitals}not in 1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1598F & 1602G}. It also has many rivers, the main ones being the Lys, Scarpe, Aa, Canche and Authy, next to others that are navigable.
72.13. Great is the number of villages and hamlets throughout this Province. The soil is most fertile and abounds with all kinds of corn, and especially wheat. For which reason some in the ancient French tongue write that it was called Atrech, that is to say The land of bread {1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1584L, 1598D, 1601L & 1603L only{for in Old French Atrech means bread}1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1584L, 1598D, 1601L & 1603L only}. It is not without woods and groves, especially towards the South and West.
72.14. {not in 1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1598D & 1598F{{The garments of the Atrebates or Artesians are noted by St. Hieronymus {not in 1602G & 1603L{in his second {1608/1612I has instead{first}1608/1612I instead} book addressed to Iovinianus and by others to be precious. {1601L{As also the Artesian mantles which Vopiscus praises in his life of Emperor Carinus. Similarly, the same}1601L, not in 1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1598D, 1598F & 1602G} Hiernonymus and other authors confirm that in his time it rained wool in this province}not in 1603L}. This region, as well as others adjacent to it, has been most remarkably described by Guicciardini}1579/1580L2Add} Marcel van den Broecke .

Bibliographical sources

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