Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 067

Text, translated from the 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian and 1609/1612 Latin edition.

67.1. {1606E{The Earldom of LIMBORGH, in the Low Countries.

67.2. GERMANIA INFERIOR, or, as we now call it, The Low Countries, is at this day divided into the following seventeen provinces, namely four Duchies, Brabant, Limbourgh, Lukenburgh & Guelderland; seven Earldoms, Flanders, Artois, Heinault, Holland, Zeland, Namur and Zutphen; one Marquisate, commonly called The Marquisette of the Sacred Empire; five Grand Signories, Frizeland, Mechlin, Utreckt, Over-issel and Groninghen. About most of these we have spoken before and at great length, <but> only about Limborgh, which, although it <may> be one of the smallest, yet in honour and dignity not the least, we have so far said little or nothing <at all>.
67.3. The Earldom of LIMBOURGH, therefore, is a small province situated in the middle between the Duchie of Gulich, Gelderland, the Bishopric of Leege and Lutzenburge. The city of Limburgh, or as they vulgarly call it Lympurch, the chief town of this province from which it took its name, lies on the river Wesse, or Wesdo, as they call it, at a distance of three leagues from Aix, and at least four <leagues>, or some more, from Leige. It is a very strong town, both by nature and art. Built on the slope of a stony hill, it is fully enclosed by a very strong wall, guarded by various strong towers here and there, next to an excellent large castle, all of free stone on the top of a hill.
67.4. The location and views of this city are most pleasant and commendable. For at the foot of the hill, at the side of the town, runs the river, next to a good, fertile stretch of land, where daily numerous cattle is kept and maintained to the great profit and gain of the inhabitants around it. This city is not ancient, nor mentioned by any old writer, as D. Remacle Fusch, a learned physician, born in this area plainly testifies, and yet he says that he has diligently searched and inspected all authors who either purposefully or incidentally discussed this matter.
67.5. The soil is very good and fertile, both for corn and pasture, especially at Hervey, a fine village not far from Clermont. They do not produce any wine, but instead, they make of soaked and moist barley a kind of very strong drink, which will make the avid drinker as drunk as he would on strong French wine. Lewis Guiccardini writes that about half a Dutch mile from this town there is a Mine or quarry of stone material very similar to metal. In the tenth Chapter of the thirty-fourth book of his Natural history Pliny calls it Lapis ćrosus, Cadmia, and lapis calaminaris <= substance with high zinc content, mined in the village nearby called Calmine, nowadays called la Calamine and in German Kelmis> (if I am not mistaken), <that is:> brass stone or Copper ore. D. Fusch states that it also has various veins of Lead and Iron.
67.6. In various places of the country they dig in abundance a kind of black stone coal, similar to what we here call Sea coal, <which is> of a sulphurous nature, a good fuel, much used by Smiths for shoeing horses. Moreover, various sorts of stones are found here, not unlike Marble or quartz, very beautiful and good for building. This country at first was no more than a County or Earldom, until Frederick, surnamed Barbarosso, in the year of our Lord 1172 graced it with the title and dignity of a Duchy.
67.7. The first Duke that enjoyed this honour was Henry the First, lineally descended from Henry the Fourth, that valiant and religious Emperor. At length, after Henry, the Second Duke of Limburgh, died without a male heir, then John, the First Duke of Brabant, around the year after Christ's incarnation 1293, by right of inheritance claimed it, and by dint of sword, driving out Reynold, Earl of Gelderland, the Usurper, obtained it. Since his days it has quietly been possessed by the house of Brabant.
67.8. Therefore, justice in civil cases, not only in Limburg, but also in Faulconburg, Dalem and other liberties and free towns beyond the Mose, come to the courts of Brabant, which are ordinarily held in Brussels. For ecclesiastical jurisdiction, they belong to the diocese of the Bishop of Liege. But next to this dukedom of Limburgh, there are various other Jurisdictions and Signiories described in this Map, of which the following ones are most important, about which it will not be amiss to speak a word or two.
67.9. Faulconburgh (in Dutch called Valckembourg, in French Fauquemont) is a very pretty town, which has jurisdiction and command over a large area of ground containing many villages. It is three large Dutch miles distant from Aix, and only two small miles from Mastricht. It was conquered and taken by John the Third, Duke of Brabant, who overcame Ramot, Lord of Faulconburgh, a troublesome man who at that time besieged Mastricht and who had often and grievously vexed the area around him. DALEM is a pretty, fine town, with a Castle, but of no great strength. It is <located> three large miles from Aix, and two from Liege. It was honoured with the title of an Earldom, and had jurisdiction and command over many villages and a large area of ground up as high as the river Mose.
67.10. Henry the Second conquered it and added it to his dominions. ROIDUCK or, as Guiccardini calls it Rhode-le-Duc is an ancient town with an old Castle, about one long Dutch mile, as the author just mentioned would have it, from Faulconburg. Yet, on our map, it is about two. AIX or AIX LACHAPELLE, if we may believe Munster, was that which the Romans called Aquisgranum, much discussed and mentioned in the stories of Charles the Great and others from those times. Others claim it to be that which Ptolemey in his ninth chapter of the second book of his Geography calls Veterra, where he said that the thirthieth Legion, called Ulpa legio resided. Limprand calls it Palais de Grau, and Rheginon <calls it> Palais de eaux, that is, the Water palace, which in my judgment seems most probable, because I find that that city in the Provence in France which the Romans called Aquć Sextić is now called Aix by the French.
67.11. This city is situated between Brabant, Limburgh, the Duchy of Gulicke, and the Bishopric of Liege. Some think that it was destroyed and levelled to the ground by Attila, king of the Huns. Others think that it was first founded by Charles the Great. But leaving all this aside as doubtful, it is certain that it stands in a most pleasant valley with as healthy and sweet a climate as may be found anywhere else in these parts. The fair Church of our Saviour and the blessed Virgin, his mother, was built by this Emperor and endowed with great lands, privileges and many holy and precious relics, brought there from various parts of the world. Beatus Rhenanus writes that Charles the Great made it the head and chief city of the kingdom of France, and <more> generally of the whole Empire, the ordinary Court and place of residence for the Emperor in these Western parts of <his realm>.
67.12. Moreover, he ordained that here the Emperor should be crowned by the Bishop of Cologne, the Metropolitan <= archbishop> of this province, with a crown of iron, at Milan, with a crown of Silver, and at Rome with a crown of Gold. Above one of the doors of the Town house the following six Latin verses have been written: Carolus insignem reddens hanc condidit urbem, Quam libertavit post Romam: constituendo, Quod sit trans Alpes hic semper regia sedes: Ut caput urbs cuncta colat hanc, & Gallia tota. Gaudet Aquisgranum prć cunctis munere clarum, Quć prius imperij leges nunc laureat almi <= By founding this town, Charlemaigne provided it with significance, After he had liberated Rome: since the royal seat must always be instituted at the other side of the Alps, so that this capital forms one unity with all of France. Aachen enjoys to provide celebrity to both joint cities, as it used to receive imperial law, whereas it now provides law gloriously>. And above another door these two: His sedes regni trans Alpes habeatur, Caput omnium civitatum & provinciarum Gallić.<= This is the King's seat beyond the Alps, capital of all cities and provinces of Gallia>.
67.13. After this famous Emperor had reigned over the French for 47 years, and had worn the imperial diadem for 14 years, his life ended in the year of our Lord 813, and he was buried here in a tomb of Marble in our Ladies Church, with this plain epitaph: Caroli Magni Christianissimi, Romanorum Imperatoris Corpus hoc conditum est sepulchro. That is, the body of Charles the Great, Emperor of the Romans, lies buried here in this tomb. So far for Guiccardini, to whom I wish to refer you if you desire a fuller treatment of these matters}1606E}.

Since the 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish and 1609/1612 Latin edition have an entirely different text, it is given separately below.

67.14. {1608/1612I{The Earldom of Limburg.
An exact description of the Earldom of Limburg and its dependencies.

67.15. In our description of the Earldom of Limburg, we want to point out to the benevolent reader that until now there has not been a single geographical map showing the area of the Earldom mentioned, nor its adjacent areas which was presentable to those interested. {not in 1609/1612/1641S{Whether this was due to a lack of craftmanship or a lack of commitment is for the reader to decide}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. This has now for the first time been accomplished by that man who is no less excellent because of his knowledge than because of his reputation and who, as the saying goes, has been most reverend and excellent in his harness as well as in his gown, namely Gaston Spinola, Count of Bruay, attentive governor and ruler of the Earldom mentioned, and of all the area beyond the Meuse.
67.16. {not i 1609/1612/1641S{From the benign Archdukes Albert and Isabella he was bestowed with this honour as a result of deliberations at their Palace and with this dignity on the basis of his merits and commitment for possessions}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. Next to other matters, he proved to be eminently knowledgable about the mathematical sciences and obtained support from many mathematicians, including from the man with well known expertise, Ćgidius Martens from Antwerp, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{who in both disciplins of Law was of no less renown than Mathesis, who was recently active as a lawyer in our fatherland. Further, through his exertions the present geographical map of the Earldom mentioned has been produced without an example for the first time, revised with a most precise scale, on which roads, woods and rivers are delicately distinguished}not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
67.17. The Eardom of Limburg contains five districts or parts, called banks, <namely> Hervium, Spremontium, Balenium, Walhornium and Montsium. {not in 1609/1612/1641S{The first two mentioned are the prominent ones; the last three are governed by Drossards as their magistrates}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. The city of Limburg, the capital of the entire Earldom, lies on top of a steep rock, protected all around by the art of nature, rather than by human ingenuity. Only at the South side does the land rise up to an immeasurable plain beyond the city, which then gradually slopes down. The city also has a stronghold on a lower part of the city facing the North, built entirely from the most pure marble of a brand called Jaspis communis, which is available in abundance near the village of Hevermont and elsewhere.
67.18. The lower elevation of the stronghold is not surprising, although a second stronghold would dominate the top of the slope and would be very suitable to guard the suburbs of this city, which once were so extended that the city would be twice as large <as it is now>. Therefore, the stronghold is now in the middle of the city, to guard both <the city and its suburbs>. Whether this was the right decision, and whether the city would be more splendid if its suburbs had been taken down is a matter I do not doubt. Therefore, I admire the enlightened vision of the illustrious Count just mentioned, who, so as not to fear the power of the stronghold, with admirable efforts built two new city gates, no less apt to repel the violence of the enemy than to prevent a siege.
67.19. The city is situated on the banks of the river Wesius, rich with the kind of fish called trout, often compared in size and taste to salmon. Moreover, it has a considerable number of lobsters, fed abundantly by this river (or rather brook, since it may dry up entirely during the summer), where they dwell between rocks and crevices. {not in 1609/1612/1641S{Not far from Limburg, but outside the district, towards the South, the springs of Spa can be found, unknown to no one because of their reputation}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. And between Walhornum and Montzium there are the hills called Kelmberghen because of their richness of a metal called Callamina, which is dug from these hills in large quantities.{not in 1609/1612/1641S{ To safeguard and ensure these proceeds, the Count just mentioned has built some fortifications.
67.20. But these have been burnt recently by the Dutch enemy when they were left unguarded, but not without punishment, for this enemy was in the same place and area slain on all sides by Limburg troups consisting of cavalry and infantry, and lost its hold as a result of this army headed by Robert of Rentium, leader of that part of the army, a man of great promise for the future concerning martial matters. But although the entire area and district is in summer very adorable because of the variety of the various places and their pleasantness to the eye, in winter it is extremely unpleasant. All through winter it is very cold, and because of its elevation the snow will persist in some places through part of the summer, which proves the saying that Limburgh is elevated above all of Belgium.
67.21. Moreover, this also contributes to the presence of springs and fountains of rivers which originate in various places in this area. The inhabitants of this city mostly exert themselves in the wool trade, and yearly produce it in great quantities which they export to various parts of Belgium. Close to the city they produce a lot of iron, for which special furnaces and ovens have been built, costing 2000 Italian scudi {1609/1612L has instead{6000 florins}1609/1612L instead} each year. The soil is also rich in sulfur, and as a result of its subterranean streams, the hot springs of Aachen have always been admired. Since the recent finding of a mine with tin and lead, it is often said that once silver and gold veins will be found as well.
67.22. The city of Limburg itself has nothing in the way of architecture worth mentioning. It is small, can only be reached through two narrow gates and is difficult to reach as a result of its elevation, even by its own inhabitants. It has a church dedicated to Saint Joris, who is its guardian, and this may be all we can say about the city and the Earldom}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. However, there are three more cities <worth mentioning> namely Valkenburg, Dalhem and Rolduc, all provided with the privileges of the Earldom, which have been united {not in 1609/1612/1641S{under the name Beyond the Meuse of the Earldom of Limburg.
67.23. The entire area moreover has three brooks, growing into rivers, namely the Beruinus at Dalhem, the Geul touching Valkenburg, and the Worm adjacent to Rolduc. By its inhabitants, as said about Limburg, it is divided into its banks}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. The soil of Valkenburg is of all the most fertile, both for cattle and corn. Not far from there is the monastery of the Holy Gerlach, splendid in its buildings and antiquity. Similarly, near Dalhem the famous abbey Vallis Dei <= Valley of God, now called Valdieu or Godsdal> extends itself. Its abbot is the first among its lords, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{and next to it there is another abbey, namely that of the Holy Cross.
67.24. The city of Limburg is bordered by an extensive forest called Fangen, which under its shrubs provides excellent hunting pleasure}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. Next to this entire district and bordering it are Leodium and Maastricht, both well-known cities. In the North there is the district and Earldom of Iuliaca. In the East {1609/1612L has instead, incorrectly{West}1609/1612L instead} there is the Imperial city of Aachen and the monastery of the Holy Cornelius, and finally in the South the Earldoms of Franchimont and Spa. {1609/1612/1641 only{Limburgh first became a County in the year 1172. Then it became a Duchy, and some of its rulers became lords of Lorraine. When the last Duke called Henricus died without leaving an heir, he was succeeded by Iohn, Duke of Brabant, in the year 1293, who would keep the Duchy until he fought a battle with the Count of Gelrewho too it by force in this battle near the castle of Vorone. The Count of Lutzenburg and two or three other leaders died in this battle. The Count of Gelre, the bishop of Cologne have remained there until this day. The Duke ordered the castle of Vorone to be razed to the ground, and after that, peace returned, it has remained like that under the Dukes of Brabant}1609/1612/1641S only}. {not in 1609/1612/1641S{Let these matters, dear reader, be the main features of this description, matters not noted before by others, whereas the things we have omitted have indeed been described by others, so that we do not pretend to mow someone elses hay}1608/1612I ends here}. {1609/1612L{Farewell reader, may this be of profit to you as it was for the author}1609/1612L, not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
<we note with gratitude a number of constructive and useful comments on parts of these texts by Mr. E. Werps, Kerkrade, the Netherlands> © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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