Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 059

Text, translated from the 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish & 1609/1612 Latin edition

59.1. {1608/1612I{Germania {not in 1609/1612/1641S{beyond the Rhine, better known as}not in 1609/1612/1641S} Lower Germania.

59.2. This map does not show all of lower Germania, but only part of it, namely that part which Philip, son of Charles the fifth, possesses by right of inheritance. It comprises seventeen regions of governance, that is, the Duchies of Brabant, Limburg, Lutzenburg and Gelria, the Earldoms of Flandria, Artois, Hannonia, Hollandia, Zelandia, and Namurcum, then Zutphen, the marquisate of the Holy Empire, the dominions of Frisia, Mechelen, Utrecht, Transisulania and Groeninga. These regions are so well developed, as Guicciardini says, that they have 208 walled cities, and more than 6300 villages with churches and towers, next to farms, castles and strongholds of which there are a considerable number.
59.3. The area, (starting in the East ar the side of the sea with the river Amisus, also known as Eems and ending at the Ocean) is bordered by the following rulers: the Count of East Frisia, the Bishop of Münster, the Count of Clivia, the Archbishop of Cologne and Trier, and finally the King of France, all the way to the river Aa on the sea coast, which forms the Western border.
59.4. Although the air may seem very humid, yet it seems to bring to the inhabitants health and happiness, for particularly in the region of Brabant {1609/1612/1641S only{called Campiña <= Kempen>}1609/1612/1641S only}, there are people of great longevity. It is watered by many rivers. It is lovely ornated by woods and forests so that it allows for hunting and relaxation. There are no mountains here, except for some around Lutzenburg and Namurcum, as also in Hannonia, where there are some hills. It is fertile in corn and fruits of all sorts, and also in herbs used for medicinal purposes. Here is also an abundance of Buckwey (pronounced as Bockwey by the common people), as if one said Beech from the meadows. Its seed or fruit has a three-cornered kernel exactly like those from beech trees, (although of smaller size), and thus resembles a beech, but does not look like deriving from a tree, so that it is smaller than animal fodder.
59.5. {not in 1609/1612/1641S{Thus, it can truly be called a <in Greek lettering> chamaifegos <= ground oak>}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. But whether these terms were known to the ancients is a matter for herbalists. Many of these trees can be found in legendary places which the inhabitants, {not in 1609/1612/1641S{because of the abundant presence of the herb Erica call Ericeta}not in 1609/1612/1641S}. These grow particularly in Brabant {1609/1612/1641S{in the parft called Campiña}1609/1612/1641S only} and other, less rough areas, and {not in 1609/1612/1641S{this Eretica}not in 1609/1612/1641S} provides marvellous pasture for the cattle, so that (even according to the testimonies of those from adjacent areas), the meat of this cattle has a very delicate taste. I am convinced that Plinius in his 14th book, chapter 4 was speaking the full truth when he said: What can be praised more in Germany than its meadows? Yet there is sand beneath its thin layer of fertile earth. It has no animals which threaten humans.
59.6. All these regions are by foreigners called by the single name of Flanders (in their ignorance taking a part to mean the whole), and its inhabitants people of Flanders, while Flanders is just a part of it, or one of its regions, as you can see on the map. They are no less in error as those who say Castilia, or Andalusia, or another Spanish province, when they want to refer to all of Spain, or those, when referring to all of Italy, speak of Tuscany or Calabria, or those who want to speak of the whole kingdom of France mention only Normandy or something similar, being convinced to have spoken of all of Spain, Italy or France.
59.7. These regions have been praised by Ioannes Goropius Becanus in his Becceselani, by Petrus Divæus from Lovania and by Hubertus Thomas from Liège. Ioannes Calvetus Stella from Spain wrote in Spanish about the itinerary of King Philip who traversed these regions and includes numerous interesting details that seem to contribute to the knowledge about these regions and cities. But who want to understand and know more fully about these matters should turn to Guicciardini, and he will be convinced not only to have read about it, but to have seen it with his own eyes. Recently David Chytræus has demonstrated his ample knowledge in his Saxon History.
59.8. Since this region is mostly bilingual, (French and Germanic <= Dutch or Flemish> are both spoken in many places as making no difference) and because many Spanish and other foreigners visit it frequently for trade and commerce <! not to mention war>, the result is that many placenames of cities, villages and rivers have several names. For everyone gives them a name in his own language, and there are large differences between these languages. And I have noted that there are quite a few writers, normally very accurate, who have made intolerable mistakes because of their ignorance about these synonyms. Among these is Dominicus Niger, who in his Geography puts Anversa <= Antwerp> on the spot of Taravanna, and who writes about Antorpia <= Antwerp> (wrongly called Antrocipia in the edition published by Henricus Petri) that it is at a distance of thirty miles from Taravanna, at the bank of the river Tabuda, while everyone knows that Antorpia and Anversa are one and the same city.
59.9. Thus, he also believes that Machlinia and Malines, Leodium and Liège, Noviomagum and Nimega, and Traiectum ad Mosam and Trait (erroneously called Treciæ) are <each of them> two different cities, whereas in fact they are one and the same. Raremuntium he also calls in great sleepiness Liège; somewhere else he says that Raremuntium is also called Rhamon. But from his description I gather that with Raremuntium and Rhamon he refers to the city that we call Roermond. Also, on the basis of similarity in pronunciation, he thinks that Rhenen, which is a city that lies in Gelria at the banks of the Rhine is the same as the bishopric of Reims which is located in Champagne, a kingdom in France. But I think that this man, who has but little knowledge about our region, does not deserve any reproach.
59.10. In order to prevent our students in geography from getting trapped in a similar manner, I have decided to add the following vernacular synonyms of various place names to this page:
59.11. Antwerpen is vernacular Flemish; hence, in Latin we say Antuerpia and Adouerpia. The Germans call it Antorff and hence in Latin Antorpia. The Italians call it Anuersa, the Spanish and French Enberes and Anvers.
59.12. Aken in our language is Aix in French, and Aquisgranum in Latin.
59.13. 's Hertogenbosch is by the French called Bois-le-Duc, hence in Latin Silva Ducalis {1609/1612/1641 only{and in Spanish Colonia}1609/1612/1641S only}.
59.14. Leuven is called Louanium in Latin, and Louain in French. {1609/1612/1641S only{The Spanish call it Louayna}1609/1612/1641S only}.
59.15. Lille is vernacular; the Germanics call it Rijssel, the Romans Insula, {1609/1612/1641S only{in Spanish Lila}1609/1612/1641S only}.
59.16. Liège is vernacular, Luik is Germanic, Leodium is Latin, {1609/1612/1641S only{in Spanish Liega}1609/1612/1641S only}.
59.17. The locals call it Keulen, the French Coloigne. For the ancients it was Colonia Agrippinæ, {1609/1612/1641S only{in Spanish Colonia}1609/1612/1641S only}.
59.18. Dordrecht is by us contracted to Dort, and is called Dordracum in Latin, {1609/1612/1641S only{the Spanish call it Dordreque}1609/1612/1641S only}.
59.19. Mechelen, hence Mechlinia in Latin, the French {1609/1612/1641S only{and Spanish}1609/1612/1641S only} call it Malines.
59.20. Tournay is what the inhabitants call it {1609/1612/1641S only{and the Spanish as well}1609/1612/1641S only}, the Germanics say Doornik, and Tornacum in Latin.
59.21. Arras in French {1609/1612/1641S only{and in Spanish}1609/1612/1641S only}, is in Flemish called Atrecht. Scientists call it Atrebatum.
59.22. Maubeuge is called Malbodium in Latin.
59.23. Tienen is for the French {1609/1612/1641S only{and Spanish}1609/1612/1641S only} Tirlemont.
59.24. Namur {1609/1612/1641S only{is the name of the French and the Spanish}1609/1612/1641S only} the inhabitants of Brabant called Namen, in Latin Namurcum.
59.25. Maastricht is contracted to Tricht, hence the French say Trait. The ancients call it Traiectum ad Mosam, {1609/1612/1641S only{the Spanish Mastrique}1609/1612/1641S only}.
59.26. Inhabitants say Viset, but the Germanics Weset, {1609/1612/1641S only{the Spanish Vise}1609/1612/1641S only}.
59.27. S. Truiden has the French name Centron, {1609/1612/1641S only{in Spanish Cantron}1609/1612/1641S only}.
59.28. Thionville in French is Germanic Ditenhofen, and Theodonis villa by the Latin writers, {1609/1612/1641S only{in Spanish Thionvila}1609/1612/1641S only}.
59.29. Flemish Terrewanen and Terrenborgh is in French Terovenne, the ancients say Tarvanna. It was once a bishop's seat, now a name only. {1609/1612/1641S only{In Spanish Terruana}1609/1612/1641S only}.
59.30. Gulik is by the French called Juliers. The ancients called it Iuliacum.
59.31. Mons is by the Flemish called Bergen.
59.32. Geersbergen has also been called S. Adriani, the French call it Grammont.
59.33. Ioudogne is by those people from Brabant who speak Germanic called Geldenaken.
59.34. Gemblours is an abbey with a city. In Latin it is Geblacum, {1609/1612/1641S only{the Spanish call it Gibbleu}1609/1612/1641S only}.
59.35. French Soigni is in Flemish Senneke.
59.36. Halle is by the French called Notre Dame de Hault.
59.37. Kortrijk is for the French {1609/1612/1641S only{as well as the Spanish}1609/1612/1641S only} Courtray, in Latin Cortracum.
59.38. Coomene is in French Comines.
59.39. The river Maas is in French called Meuse, in Latin {1609/1612/1641S only{and Spanish}1609/1612/1641S only} Mosa.
59.40. The Germanics call this river Schelde, the French Escault, whereas Iulius Cæsar and Plinius call it Scaldis, {1609/1612/1641S only{in Spanish Scalda}1609/1612/1641S only}.
59.41. French Liège is by the Flemish called Leie}1608/1612I} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

Bibliographical sources

For questions/comments concerning this page, please e-mail
The software that generates this website is available for sale. For more information, contact Thomer M. Gil.
This page has been generated on Mon Jan 16 21:35:01 2006.