Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 047

Text (translated from the 1595Latin 5th Add, 1595 Latin, 1597German 5th Add., 1598 French, 1601Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish and 1609/1612 Latin edition)

47.1. {1595L5Add{PROVENCE

47.2. That portion of France {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{which ancient Writers called Narbonensem and Bracchatam, are by Cæsar and Plinius comprised under the name of Provincia. Part of it is}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} contained within the rivers Rosne and Durance, the Alps the river Varo and the Mediterranean sea and still designated under the name PROVENCE by its inhabitants. Petrarcha writes that it was once called Regnum Arelatense. The writers {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{from the middle ages}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} call it Provinciam Viennensem tertiam. It {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{has mountainous regions and}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} borders West on Languedoc, North on Dauphine, East it is confined by Piemont and South by the Mediterranean sea and the Isles Stœchades. This was always, and still continues to be the most fertile region of France. For Strabo asserts that it yields all the sorts of fruits that Italy provides.
47.3. If we may believe Belleforest, it produces sugar at the town of Yeres. Manna is gathered here <too>, as the same author confirms. The principal cities of this province are Massilia, {1606E{commonly <called> Marseille,}1606E} {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{which was the ancient Ionica Colonia of the Phocæan Greeks}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, surrounded by the sea as it is, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{as Cæsar <in> 5 Civil. reports}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, on three sides, having a passage to the mainland on the fourth side. Strabo writes that the harbour is in the form of a Theatre and that within its circumference they have docks for building and a storehouse for equipping ships. Here there was a temple of the Ephesian Diana, and another of Apollo Delphicus.
47.4. The citizens were trilingual, speaking Greek, Latin and French, as St. Hieronymus reports on the authority of Varro. About this city <you can> read more extensively in {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{the 43rd book of}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} Trogus Pompeius, and in a Panegyric speech {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{delivered for Constantine the Great by Anonymous or an unnamed one. The city of Arelatum, commonly <called>}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} Arles <is situated> on the river Rhosne, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{which by Ausonius is named Arelas or Gallula Roma, as also}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} double Arelas {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{because}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G} (as the learned Vinetus observes), {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{it was earlier divided into two by that river}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. It may now well be called single Arelas, looking quite differently, and entirely situated on that side of the river which faces Italy. This, Ammianus says, is more famous than many cities.
47.5. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{And Suetonius says that a Roman settlement was established here by the father of Emperor Tiberius}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. Procopius states that it was earlier the main city of the Burgundians. Next follows Aquæ Sextiæ <the waters of Sextius>, so called (says Strabo) because that same Sextius who subdued Salyes built this city after his own name, and after the name of certain hot baths in the same area. Now it has been corrupted to Aix. Strabo supposes that in his time these baths have turned cold, and likewise Robert Cœnalis confirms that they have lost their ancient virtue <of being hot>. The Parliament of the whole province resides here.
47.6. About this city Gabriel Simeonius writes that he never saw a more pleasant place, nor more courteous people. Then you have the city of Cabello, now called Cauaillon. <Then> Tarascon which still retains its ancient name. <Then> Carpentoracte, commonly <called> Carpentras. <Then> Vasio, now <called> Voison. {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{The same with Forum Vocontiorum, according to some}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. <Then> Taurentum {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{and Telo Martius}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, which some now suppose to be Toulon. Forum Iulij <is> now Frejus. <Then> Olbia, which perhaps is Yeres. Antipolis <is> Antibes, Segusteron <is> Cisteron, Vintium <is> Venze, Glanatica <is> Glandeues, <and> Dinia <is> Digne. Tecolata is thought to be St. Maximines, and Grinnicensis <is> Grasse, all famous in antiquity.
47.7. Moreover, here is the town of St. Baume, situated on a craggy hill where the inhabitants think that Maria Magdalena did penance and spent her last days. Also, at the mouth of the river Rhosne the reader may see at one side the field called La Craux, and on the other side La Camargo. The latter one, (they say,) is miraculously fertile with wheat. And Belleforest thinks that it is called Camargo a castris Marij <Camargo at the fortifications of Marius> after the camp Marius set up here.
47.8. The other field just mentioned, {not in 1597G5Add, 1602G, 1603L & 1609/1612/1641S{La Craux}not in 1597G5Add, 1602G, 1603L & 1609/1612/1641S}, is unusually barren, having nothing but stones, {not in 1597G5Add{which is why the ancient writers most aptly called it Campus Lapideus}not in 1597G5Add} {1602G, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S only{or The stony field}1602, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S only}. The islands adjacent to this province are the Stœchades, scattered, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{as Pomponius writes}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, from the shores of Liguria {1606E only{or Genoa}1606E only} all the way to Marseille. Plinius makes them three in number, naming each <of them>. And Strabo too says there are three of importance and two small ones, not worthy to be mentioned.
47.9. Around these isles grows the most excellent Coral, as Plinius testifies, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{which Belleforest reports still to be there}1597G5Add & 1602G}. {1601L but not in 1602G{In praise of this province, Petrus Quinqueranus, Bishop of Sens, has written a specific volume}1601L but not in 1602G}.
47.10. On this side of the river Durance this Region borders on that part of the Pope's jurisdiction which is commonly called Conte de Venacin, in Latin Comitatus Venuxinis or Veneticus, where you find the City and University of Avignon, which in former times was the Papal see, namely from Pope Clement the fifth in the year 1300 until Gregorius the second, for a period of 60 years. {1601L but not in 1602G{Petrarcha then called it The French and Western Babylon}1601L but not in 1602G}.
47.11. Besides other notable things in this city, there are seven, each comprising seven, which deserve our admiration, namely: seven Palaces, seven Hospitals, seven Parishes, seven Nunneries, seven Colleges, seven Friaries, and seven gates. Not far from here is the valley of Clusa {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{at the head of the river Sorgues}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}, a place greatly admired by Franciscus Petrarcha, {not in 1597G5Add & 1602G{since he often calls it his Helicon and Parnassus}not in 1597G5Add & 1602G}. This he chose as his hermitage to withdraw himself from worldly cogitations. <He is> a man, in my opinion, not of the ordinary cast of Writers, but someone who I may boldly and deservedly call The Christian Seneca}1595L5Add}.

<Since the text of the 1598 French edition differs considerably from the translation given above, I provide the 1598F text here separately>.

47.12. {1598F only{Provence.

47.13. This region is of average size. There is a great intemperance of the air, because the heat is here greater than in any other part of Gaul, such, that it seems to contain in itself some features which are typical fo some other parts of Gaul. Only this region of the Provence resembles those parts of Belgian and Celtic parts which are considered to be the most fertile ones, such as Mormandie, Picardie, Champagne, Touraine & la Beauce for its fish, corn, wines, fruits, meat and other provisions necessary for human subsistence. For in Provence, there are parts which abound in corn as are not surpassed in any other part of France, such as the Camarque of Arles.
47.14. <Further> the plains of Saint Chamar, of Miramas, Senas, & Malemort, up to Ourdon, & Ardage towards the river Durance, maybe after the example of Beauce, and from there to Ourgon, and to Aix & Marseille, and from Marseille to Yeres, Freius & Antibe, and then to the river Var which separates Provence from the lands of the Duke of Savoye. And in this entire stretch of land, one can see an infinite and wonderful abundance of fruit trees and sweet smelling trees, Orange trees, Lemons, Olives, Granades, Figs and the most excellent vineyards you can imagine. And the majority of those vineyards and orchards, enclosed by hedges without thorns, with Granadiers and Cork trees, so that the enclosure is just as profitable as what is inside.
47.15. As regards lands and areas that are not cultivated, these are not without profit either, for they are covered with Rosemary, Myrtle, Juniper, Sage and other similar shrubs and plants with a sweet odor. You can also see palm trees here bearing fruits as good as those from Africa or Barbary.In the city of Yeres they have planted sugar canes. Saffran, Rice and asters grow abundantly in various places, and the olive oil from here is considered the best of Europe. Excellent manna is harvested here, and the most pure Rousse <?> that the climate can provide to us. You also see in Provence what we have seen in Normandy where there are mountains along the seaside ports, such as in Escalle, Seiné, Colmars, Castellaume & other places where there grows no wine, but the flat areas are covered with tall vines like in Normandy they have Pear trees, apples, chestnuts, and wallnuts and other trees typical for a cooler climate.
47.16. The fertility of Isle de France may be compared to that of the land and territory of Riez, and the areas at Moustier, Draguignon, Litoues, Forcalquier, Oigne, Vallasolle, which may <also> be compared to Brie. The few forests and shrubs it has consist of green Oaks, Pine trees and the like. They also have fine and rich salt mines, located at Berre, Yeres, Lestan, Valench which, when during season when it has been boiled and collectedtenthousand people are not enough to consume it all, which is a great wonder.
47.17. So far about the country. Let us now describe its cities. Firstly, the best city on the coast of the Levant is Nice, situated on a bay. As far as its antiquity, it is the oldest city of Gaul. Now it has a Palace and Citadel belonging to the Dukes of Savoye, and although they determine the succession of rulers in Provence, they do not for France. Then there is Antipolis or the city of Antibe, and opposite this city is the Isle of Saint Honorat.
47.18. Past Antibes you can see the ancient city of Frejus, also called Forum Iulij, one of the most fortified places of the country. Along the coast here you have the ancient settlement of Olbie, now called Eres, and neighbouring islands bear the name of the city on land, of which there are five. All along these islands, one finds the best and most beautiful corals of the entire Ligastic sea. Next to Eres there is the episcopal city of Tolon, and then the rich and very ancient city of Marseille. This city is well known because of its great traffic of merchandise, and its excellent harbour. This area is like the warehouse of all the riches coming from the East and the West. Then there is the city of Saint Maximin. And six leagues from there is the ancient city of Aix, in Latin called Aqua Sextia, that is, the Waters of Sextius, because of its hot springs in various parts of this city. It is now the capital and sovereign place of Provence, where Parliament has been established.
47.19. Nowadays you still find here many Roman antiquities, and stones with inscriptions on them. Having seen this, you turn towards the river Durance, on the banks of which you see the city of Cistero, which is honoured with the title of a bishopric. Then, along the same river, there is Cavaillon. Then there is the Principality of Aurenge, the main city which gives its name to this region. Here you can see the ruins of one of the most splendid and magnificent Amphitheatres of the world, and various other Roman antiquities.
47.20. Leaving the lands of the Prince of Orange, you enter those of the Pope, and along the banks of the river Rhosne, you see the ancient city of Avignon. Apart from other rarities, this city has seven features, and each of them again seven features, namely seven Palaces, seven dialects, seven Hospitals, seven Monasteries for nuns, seven colleges, seven Convents and seven harbours. It is rich in food, drapes, fine colours, good paper, all produced in the area. It is an Archbishopric and has a University. Then there are Carpentras, Vaison, Tarascon, Salon, Saint Chama &c.
47.21. Have a look at Arles, a very ancient city, an Archbishopric and once the chief city of the Kingdom. How much importance the Romans attached to this city can still be seen in the ruins of the Arenas they made, the architecture, the size of the stones used that you see there, so that it is impossible to find anything in the world similarly testifying such an ancient history and such magnificence. When leaving Arles, you see that swampy part of the Rhosne which is called Camargue, along which you find the city of Saint Gyllis. From Saint Gyllis one goes to Aigues-Mottes, a Roman settlement. This is what we have as regards Provence, taken from Belleforest, to whose books we refer the reader for more elaborate descriptions}1598F only} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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