Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 034

Text (translated and merged from the 1570L, 1571L, 1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1598D, 1598F, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L and 1606E editions)


34.2. The entire track of land from the river Rhine to the Ocean, the Pyrenee mountains, the Mediterranean sea, and mount Appennine as far as Ancona, the ancient Romans call by one general name, Gallia. For Westwards by the Pyrenee hills it is separated from Spain; North it borders on the French and British Ocean; East the river Rhein and the Alps, down to the Pyrenees separating the inner sea and outer sea, South it has a peninsular coast by part of the Mediterranean sea over at Provence. It was called Gallia in recognition of the people's white colour, because the high mountains and heaven's rigour exclude the heat of the sun from this part. That is the reason that their white bodies do not change colour. For which reason the Greek call them Galatas {1606E{or ancient inhabitants of France}1606E} <in Greek lettering> Gala due to their milk-white colour. For {1571L, in Greek lettering{Gala}1571L} in Greek means milk, from which the Romans have called them Gallos. {1571L, not in 1579L but found in 1580/1589G, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L & 1603L{Most of the writers agree with this derivation, yet there are some that scorn it, preferring to suppose that they are called after rain, which in Hebrew is Galah, and in the old British language Glau, as if to say: A most ancient nation, <much> rained upon, {1571, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L, 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1602S, 1603L & 1606E only{and drenched in the Deluge itself}1571L, 1573L, 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L & 1606E only}.
34.3. This region of theirs was in old times divided into Gallia Cisalpina, {1606E only{which from our perspective lies beyond the Alpes}1606E only} being that part of Italy which is now called Lombardy, and in Transalpina which is in fact included within the following five bounds, namely the river Rhine, the Ocean, the Pyrenee mountains, the Mediterranean sea, and the Alps. This Gallia Transalpina is by Cęsar in his Commentaries divided into three parts: Belgica, Celtica and Aquitanica. Belgica is surrounded by the Ocean and the rivers Rhine, Marne and Seine. They mostly speak Dutch <here>, and it is presently called the Low countries. Celtica or Lugdunensis is enclosed by the rivers Garonne, Marne, Seine and Rhosne. It is now called France, because the Celtę were subdued by the Franks from Germany so that finally they were called West Franks, from which the province itself derives its name. Aquitanica, earlier called Aremorica extends from the river Garonne to the Ocean and the Pyrenee mountains. To the West and the North it is bounded by that part of the Ocean which is called the Bay of Aquitane. Westwards it has Spain, North Celtica {1588S & 1601L have instead{Lugdunensis}1588S & 1601L instead}{not in 1592L, 1595L & 1601L{or France proper}not in 1592L, 1595L & 1601L}, and South the country of Provence {1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L & 1603L have instead{Narbonensis}1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L & 1603L instead}. It is now called Gascoine and its inhabitants differ both in stature and language from the remainder of France.
34.4. These are the ancient borders of the Gauls. However, the country of the French, which today bears the title of a Kingdom and is commonly called the Kingdom of France, has not such a large size. To the North it is so much smaller as is cut off by an imaginary line from Strasbourg on the Rhine to the harbour of {not in 1588S & 1602S{Iccium, nowadays}not in 1588S & 1602S} Calais, and it covers all the land which is contained within this line, the Ocean, the Pyrenee mountains, the Mediterranean and the Alps.
34.5. {1574L{ Postellus in his book on the whole world lists the specific Shires or Provinces of this Kingdom in the following manner. In the East it has {1584L, not in 1588S & 1602S{Provence}1584L, not in 1588S & 1602S}, Savoie, Swisserland, Bressia, Borgogne, Lorraigne, Champagne, Henault, Cleve and Flanders. In its North Picardie, Normandy and Bretaigne. In the West Bretaigne, Aniou {1592L, 1595L, 1601L & 1603L have instead, 1588S additionally{Angiers}1592L, 1595L, 1601L & 1603L instead, 1588S additionally}, Poictou, Xantoigne and Gascoigne. And in the South Gascoigne, Bearne, Roussilon, Dauphine {1588S has instead{the two Savoyes}1588S instead}, Vellay, Forest, Auvergne, Limosni, Perigort and Angoulesme. East of Poictou lie the provinces of Bourges, Bourbon, Beauiolois, Lionnois, {1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L & 1603L only{below}1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L & 1603L} Burgundy, {1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L & 1603L only{Franchecomte}1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L & 1603L only}, Auxerrois, Nivernois, Berry, Tours, Vendosme beyond Aniou {1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L & 1603L have instead{Angiers}1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L & 1603L instead}, le Beaulse, Gastinois, Valois beyond Sens, and not far off le Perche, Druise and le Mans near {1588S only{cape}1588S only} Bretaigne.
34.6. This is how these Provinces are presently named. But although Postellus includes Savoy, Swizzerland, Loraigne, Henault, Cleve and Flanders among the Provinces of France, yet they are now not under the government of this Kingdom, for all of them have their own Princes, not subject to the crown of France.
34.7. Concerning the French King, Villanovanus reports two remarkable things: first, That in the Church of Rhemes there is a vessel full of oil that never decays, sent from heaven to anoint the Kings of France at their coronation. Secondly, That these Kings heal the disease Scrofula {1606E only{called in English The Queenes evill}1606E only} <= goitre> by only touching the affected spot}1574L}.
34.8. The whole of France is described in a large volume by Robert Cœnalis. Read also concerning the same matter Gilbert Cognatus Nozorenus, Iohannes Marius, {1592L{and Chassanęus in his twelfth book De gloria mundi <about the glory of the world>}1592L}. Postellus in his book Of the whole world, Aimon at the beginning of his history of the Franks, Sebastian Munster, {1579L, not in 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L{Belleforest, Thevet}1579L, not in 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S & 1592L} and other describers of the world.
34.9. {1592L{ Discussing this region also, as well as the disposition of its inhabitants, you may learn something from the second book of Laonicus Chalcocondylas of Athens}1592L}. Of the ancient Writers Cęsar surpasses everything. {1592L{Diodorus Siculus in his 5th book,}1592L} {1574L{and Ammianus Marcellinus in his fifteenth book have many notable things concerning this region}1574L}. {1571L{Likewise, Claudius Champier of Lyon wrote in French a Treatise about the first appearance of the main towns in all of France. Symphorianus, his father, discusses the rivers and the miracles of waters and fountains in France}1571L}. The city of Paris, {1580/1589G only{its main city}1580/1589G only} is described in verse by Eustathius ą Knobelsdorf,}1570L} {1573L{and the city of Lyon by Champier}1573L}.

<Since the texts on this map in the 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1581 French, 1587 French, 1598 French and 1598 Dutch edition differ considerably from the texts given above, I will provide a separate translation, merged over these editions, below>

34.10. {1571/1573D{France.

34.11. France is in Latin called Gallia, but under that name it was much larger than France is nowadays, for what was once called Gallia was all that is found between the Pyrenee mountains, the French and English sea, the river Rhine, the Italian mountain range, and the Mediterranean, as also all of Lombardy, which was called Gallia Cisalpina. But now France includes only what is under the jurisdiction of the King of France, that is, all the Land between {not in 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F{the Rhine at}not in 1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F} Strasbourg upwards, to the Italian mountains or the Alps and along this mountain range to the sea, and along the Pyrenee mountains to the other sea, and along all its coasts to Calais, and from there the border is a line drawn back to Strasbourg.
34.12. But we draw this line without any prejudice, and only roughly, because this land is not clearly separated from our own lands, which belong to the House of Burgundy. Also Savoye lies at this side of the mountains which belongs to the King of Piemont, as also part of Lorraine and Switzerland &c., but because this is only a small part, compared to the whole, it therefore does not seem to be of much importance.
34.13. To describe this France in some more detail, we list the following parts {1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F only{all belonging and resorting under the Crown of France}1572/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F only}:
Provence, Dauphine, Bresse, Bourgogne, Champagne, Picardy, Normandy, Bretagne, Angiers, Poictou, Santoigne, Gascoigne, &c. These are the outlying districts all around. Inside these, you find: France, Beaune, Gastinois, Niuernois, Bourbonois, Forest, Languedoc, Auuergne, Limosin, Touraine &c.
34.14. All these regions belong to the Crown of France, (as they are), and together constitute the {not in 1598D{best}not in 1598D} Kingdom of Christianity. It is a very pleasant and fertile land, with navigable rivers, such as the Seyne, Loire, Garonne, Saone and Rhone, traversed by rivers and ornated with many cities.
34.15. Its inhabitants are by nature frivolous and light-hearted, but somewhat prone to quarrel, so that they may easily turn to court on an insignificant matter (which a Dutchman would hardly do for a more grave matter). As a result, there are more lawyers and solicitors (as Villanova writes) than in ten Germanies or Spains. This is also why there are so many High Courts of Justice which they call Parliaments, such as in Paris, Rouen, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Grenoble &c., to the decisions of which there is no further appeal.
34.16. There are two miraculous things in this Kingdom. One is the Holy Oil, with which all Kings are anointed during their coronation in Reims, and which, (as Histories relate), has come from heaven under the reign of their first Christian King Clodoueo, and which does not diminish. The other is that Kings, by only the touch of their hand, heal an illness which they call Escruelles, which is a scrofulous tumour at the side of the neck}1571/1573D} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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