Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 031

Text (translated from the 1584L3Add, 1584 German 3rd Add., 1584 Latin, 1587 French, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598 Dutch, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish and 1609/1612 Latin edition)

31.1. {1584L3Add{GADES: {1606E only{otherwise called CADIZ, CALIZ or {1598D only{CALIS-MALIS}1598D & 1606E only}{1608/1612I has instead{The Isle of Cadiz}1608/1612I instead}.

31.2. Under the name of Gades, Strabo, Plinius and some other Writers comprise two islands. Mela, Solinus, {not in 1606E{Dionysius}not in 1606E}{1608/1612I has instead{Diodorus}1608/1612I instead} and Ptolemæus mention only one, which, together with the city, they call Gadira. {not in 1598D{They that will have two Gades call one The greater and the other The lesser. This, (as Plinius reports from Philistides, Timæus and Silenus, and Strabo from Pherecides) was named Erythia, and Aphrodisea, {not in 1587F, 1601L & 1603L{and they also call it Iunoes Island}not in 1587F, 1601L & 1603L}. By its inhabitants it was also properly called Erythia, and Continusa, <and> by the Carthaginians {1588S, 1601L, 1602G & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{Phœnicians}1588S, 1601L, 1602G & 1609/1612/1641S instead} Gadir. The Romans called it Tartesson, as the same Plinius writes}not in 1598D}. At this moment there is but one island only, (and that very much diminished by the oceans violent waves), which the Spaniards call Cadiz, {not in 1598D & 1598F{and corruptly Caliz}not in 1598D & 1598F}, {1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1598D and later{and our countrymen, I do not know on what grounds, Calis-Malis}1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1598D and later}. {not in 1598D{On the lesser of the two islands mentioned was the town of Gades, and on the greater}not in 1598D} {1598D only{Now it is called Cadiz or}1598D only} Iulia Gaditana Augusta, {not in 1598D{which before <that>, as appears from Strabo, was called Neapolis. Now they call both the town and the island Cadiz}not in 1598D}. It is the seat of a Bishop who also has the title of Bishop of Algezire.
31.3. This Isle was first discovered and inhabited by certain Phœnicians of Tyrus, as is evident from very ancient records. About this isle, some are of the opinion that the Geryones afterwards settled there, who drove away the Ægyptian or Tyrian Hercules by force. At one corner of the island stood the temple of this Hercules, famous for its builders, superstition, riches and antiquity. Why it should be holy (says Mela) is sufficiently explained <by the fact that> his bones are buried there. {not in 1598D{On its other corner Strabo says that the temple of Saturnus was erected}not in 1598D}.
31.4. In this temple of Hercules, Cæsar found the image of Alexander the Great, as Suetonius in his life <of Cæsar> reports. There was a fountain, very wholesome to drink from, which with a strange kind of contrariety, diminished at high tide, and increased at the ebb tide of the sea. In this temple, (as the same author affirms), there were certain brass pillars of eight cubits {1584G3Add & 1602G have instead{18}1584G3Add & 1602G instead}{1587F has instead{12}1587F instead} on which were engraved the costs expended in building it.
31.5. Here also does the same author report {not in 1587F & 1598D{from Artemidorus}not in 1587F & 1598D} that there is a temple dedicated to {not in 1584G3Add, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L & 1609/1612/1641S{Saturnus and}not in 1584G3Add, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L & 1609/1612/1641S}{1584L3Add, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{Iuno}1587F instead}, {not in 1587F{which is confirmed by Artemidorus}1584L3Add, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S instead; not in 1587F},{not in 1598D{Dionysius describes}not in 1598D} as part of it the temple of Age and of Death, and tells about certain altars consecrated to the Year, to the Month, to Art and to poverty. Hercules' pillars are extant here {not in 1601L{(says Isidorus)}not in 1601L} and here grows a kind of palm tree with gum which turns into precious stone when mixed with the glass of Epyrus {1584L3Add, 1584L, 1587F, 1601L, 1602G & 1608/1612I have instead{Ceraunius}1584L3Add, 1584L, 1587F, 1601L, 1602G & 1608/1612I instead}. The inhabitants used to be famous for their skill in navigation, and from their ancient <habit> to cross the seas, they do not as yet deviate. But their principal sources of income consist of making Salt and catching tuna fish, for which they go out fishing every year. After these fishes have been cut into pieces, salted and barrelled, they are dispersed all over Europe.
31.6. {not in 1598F{This isle was considered in antiquity to be the world's extreme Western limit, {not in 1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1587F & 1588S{on the basis of which Silius Italicus {1602G has instead{the Poet Statius}1602G instead} says {not in 1598D & 1602G{in his first book}not in 1598D & 1602G}, And Gades, the utmost bounds of men, &c. {not in 1602G{Also in his {not in 1598D{17th}not in 1598D} book:
31.7. Gades, lands farthest end, and Calpe, bounding Hercules
And Bætis crystal streams,
That bathe Apollo's steeds}not in 1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1598F & 1602G}.
31.8. For here the Poets pretend that the Sun, being weary of its full day of labour, drenches itself in the Ocean and takes a rest, {not in 1598D{for which fantasized reason Statius also calls it Gades, the Sun's soft bed}not in 1598D}. Yes, at this very time our Dutch mariners call the Westernmost Cape of this island (which by its inhabitants is called El cabo de San Sebastian) HET EINDE VAN DE WERELD, that is to say, The Worlds end. {not in 1598D{This ancient inscription found upon this isle occurs in his book of Inscriptions, supposedly <taken> from Cyracius Appianus of Ancona. <It goes> as follows:

31.9. HELIODORVS INSANVS CARTHAGENIENSIS AD EXTREMVM ORBIS SARCOPHAGO TESTAMENTO ME HOC IVSSI CONDIER, VT VIDEREM SI ME QVISQVAM INSANIOR AD ME VISENDVM, VSQVE AD HÆC LOCA PENETRARET. {1584G3Add, 1588S, 1602G, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{thus: I, Heliodorus, a mad Carthaginian commanded in my last will that they should bury me in this tomb at the worlds end, to see if anyone more frantic than myself would come so far to visit me}1584G3Add, 1588S, 1602G, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only}. {not in 1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1598F & 1602G{But that this whole inscription is falsified and new is what I learn from Anthonius Augustinus in his eleventh chapter about ancient coins}not in 1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1588S & 1602G}. About this island you may read more elaborately in Strabo {not in 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1588S & 1602G{and Philostratus}not in 1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1588S & 1602G}. And about the city, read Brunus in his volume about cities}not in 1587F, 1598D nor in 1598F}.


31.11. GVIPUSCOA is a part of that Northern region of Spain that used to be called Cantabria. It borders on the kingdom of Navarre and the Pyrenee mountains, which separate it from France, and it is bounded Westwards by the province of Biscay {1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{and a part of Cantabria}1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1603L, 1609/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only}.
31.12. In Ptolemæus the inhabitants are called Varduli. Now some call it Lipuscoa, others Lepuisca, but corruptly, as Stephan Garibaio, born in this country, writes. Some ancient records of this country not undeservedly call it The wall and fortress of Castilia and Leon. It is a mountainous place, everywhere abounding with iron and steel {1587F has instead{copper}1587F instead}, which for quantity and quality of this metal is not surpassed by any other region of the world. For this reason, to serve their interests, all the neighbouring countries are abundantly supplied with all kinds of iron tools and instruments. Here they also make warlike armour and artillery, such as Great Ordnance, Harquebuses, Callipers, Harnesses, Swords &c. {not in 1584G3Add, 1587F, 1588S, 1598D, 1598F, 1602G, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S {new objects force me to use new words}not in 1584G3Add, 1587F, 1588S, 1598D, 1598F, 1602G, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S} so good, and so plentiful that people from all nations want to have them.
31.13. They themselves are also a very warlike people, so that this region may rightly be called Mars' armoury, and the inhabitants his workmen. Those who dwell on the coasts, spending the largest part of their time at sea, gain for themselves great profit by catching {1606E only{Newfoundland}1606E only} fish called Baccalaos and Whales, of whose fat they melt great quantities of oil, which when barreled, is dispatched far and wide. Here they also boil Salt, {1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1598D, 1598F, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L only{locally called Salinas,}1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1598D, 1598F, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L only} mixing it (I do not know for what purpose) with Oats and Hemp seed.
31.14. The main city is Tholosa, situated at the joining of the rivers Araxis {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{Arexis}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead} and Oria. Others are also of significance, <such> as Placentia, swarming with Smiths, Motrico or rather Monte de Trico, so called after the rock Trico which hangs over it. The port of San Sebastian is the largest and most commodious port on the whole coast. Here come people from various nations to trade. At first it was called Hiçuru, then Don Bastia, and corruptly Donastia, which means quite the same as Saint Sebastian. For Don in the Basque tongue means Saint, as Santo in {1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{Castilian}1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only} Spanish. But by its inhabitants it is commonly called Vrumea. {1587F & 1598F only{Estienne Garibaye describes this region very well, as is also the case for Floriano del Campo}1587F which ends this part here & 1598F only}{not in 1598F{For this region in language differs altogether from the rest of Spain.
31.15. It has many towns called by different names, according to the differences between languages, some of which I thought good to note here for the benefit of those that read histories. {not in 1598D{The different names of various towns in Guipusco are these that follow}not in 1598D}:

31.16. Salinas or Gaça, both meaning salt.
31.17. Mondragon or Arrasale.
31.18. Monreal or Dena.
31.19. Aspeitia or Vrasueitia, & Saluatierra de Traurgui.
31.20. <next column:>Olite or Arriueri.
31.21. Renteria or Villa nueva de Oiarcum.
31.22. Peña Oradada, {1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1598D, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L only{Puerto de St. Aduan}1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1598D, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L only}.
31.23. Elicaur or Licaur.
31.24. <next column:> Marquina or Elgoyuar.
31.25. Azcoytia or Vrazgoitia & Miranda de Yvaurgui.
31.26. Araxa, Araiça.
31.27. Also, the hill Aralar is called Arara, and the river Vidoso Vidorso, and Aldvida, and Beoyvia. This river runs between Spain and France. {not in 1598D{In describing this region Stephano Garibayo is very elaborate in chapter 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of his 15th book. And Florian del Campo writes something about it in the second {1588S has instead{fifth}1588S instead} chapter of his first book}not in 1598D}. {not in 1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1588S & 1602G{And Navagierus in his Journal states that there is so much iron and steel dug out of the mountains of Guipusco that it brings 80,000 ducats a year in profit. {not in 1598D{The words of Plinius in his 34th book, and 14th chapter apply to this place (I think). On the coast of Cantabria (he says) which is on the Ocean, there is a craggy high mountain, a thing very admirable, wholly consisting of the same material [he means iron]}not in 1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1598D, 1598F & 1602G}.

31.28. {1608/1612I only{The land of}1608/1612I only} CARPETANIA.

31.29. This region {1602G has instead{island}1602G instead} lies in the very heart of Spain, {1587F & 1598F only{ and is a part of the Kingdom of Toledo}1587F & 1598F only} and Plinius & Livius {1587F has instead{ancient historiographers and Geographers}1587F instead} call it Carpetania. {not in 1584G3Add, 1587F, 1592L, 1595L & 1598F{Its people were known as Carpetani to Strabo, and as Carpitani {not in 1602G{with .i.}not in 1602G} to Ptolemæus}not in 1592L & 1595L}. {not in 1598D{Polybius calls them Carpesios and so does Livius in some places}not in 1584G3Add, 1587F, 1598D nor in 1598F}. Their chief city is Toledo. Its description you may read in {not in 1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1598F & 1602G{Navagierus}not in 1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1598F & 1602G}, {not in 1598D{Pedro de Medina, and George Brunus}not in 1598D}. Not all of Carpetania is depicted in this Map, but <only> the part from Toledo Eastwards}1584L3Add, 1584G3Add, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1598F, 1598D & 1602G end here}. {1601L{Concerning Toledo, since I have not read it in any other author, I will add what Roger Hoveden reports in the second book of his Chronicle on England: {not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{He calls it Tulette}not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S} and these are his words: In this city there is a hill from which daily more than a thousand camel loads of earth are taken, and yet it never decreases, for however deep a hole you dig, yet the next morning, when rain falls, it will be filled up again. The earth taken out of this hill is transported to the neighbouring provinces and sold to wash men's heads and clothes, Christians as well as Pagans. This Roger lived around the year 1200}1601L} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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