Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 026

Text (translated from the 1570L, 1571L, 1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F, 1573L, 1574L, 1575L, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1598D, 1598F, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1606E, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S and 1609/1612L editions).

26.1. {1571L, not in 1588S{The Kingdom of}1571L, not in 1588S} {1570L{PORTVGAL

26.2. PORTVGAL is incorrectly called Lusitania, for neither is all of Portugal comprised in Lusitania, nor all of Lusitania in Portugal. Yet, it cannot be denied that the better part of Lusitania is subject to the King of Portugal. Portugal is divided into three regions, {not in 1608/1612I{Transtagana {1606E only{or that which lies beyond or South of the river Tagus, the river of Lisbon, as far as Guadiana}1606E only}. <Then> Cistagana, {1606E only{situated on this side or North of Tagus, as far as the river Douro}1606E only}. And <then> Interamnis <= between the rivers>}{1602G only{Durio and Minio}1602G only, not in 1608/1612I}. {not in 1579L{Transtagana borders on that part of Andaluzia {1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{BŠtica}1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S instead} which extends from the river Ana {1588S, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S only{Guadiana}1588S, 1602S, 1606E & 1609/1612/1641S only} to the limits of the kingdom}not in 1579L} {1606E only{Castilia Nuova}1606E only}.
26.3. Interamnis I call that <part> which lies {1571L{between the rivers Douro and Minho,}1571L} a region no less pleasant than fruitful. This Interamnis {1606E only{or River-bounded province,}1606E only} is wholly outside the limits of Lusitania {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead{is part of Portugal}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead}. Unless we reject this description, and will rather incline towards Strabo, who says that the greater part of Lusitania is inhabited by the Callaici. The length of this region is twelve {1580/1589G & 1602G only{Welsh}1580/1589G only} leagues, and its breadth, where it is largest, is {not in 1602G{also twelve leagues, but in other places}not in 1602G} only six {1602G instead(nine}1602G instead} or even four leagues. And on this portion of ground, small as it is, next to the Metropolitan church of Braga, the Cathedral of Porto {1571L, 1573L, 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{Portugal}1571L, 1573L, 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S instead} and five other Collegiate churches, there are more than 130 monasteries, the greater part of which are endowed with the most ample revenues, as is also the case for the {1571L, 1573L, 1580/1589G, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1603L & 1609/1612/1641S only{approximately}1571L, 1573L, 1580/1589G, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1603L & 1609/1612/1641S only} 1460 Parish churches {1571L, 1573L, 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L only{all with its own Baptists}1571L, 1573L, 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L}, as one author writes. Certain is that within the specific diocese of Braga 800 {1571L, 1573L, 1579L, 1584L, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L and 1609/1612L have instead{80}1571L, 1573L, 1579L, 1584L, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L & 1609/1612L instead} <of these> have been accounted for.
26.4. From which you may easily guess both the fecundity of the soil as well as the ancient devotion of its inhabitants. But is there any need to speak about the pleasantness when <we see> that in this province more than twenty-five thousand fresh springs are found, and 200 bridges, most lavishly built from square stones, and no less that six harbours for ships? Of these things therefore I thought it not amiss to remind you, because the excellence and worth of this Province is still not well known.
26.5. {1606E only{To the East of this}1606E only} it is bordered by the province called Transmontana, {1606E only{that is to say, on the other side of the mountains}1606E only}. It abounds with excellent Wheat and strong Wine, and contains within it the city of Braganša, which is the head of the largest Dukedom. So far for Vaseus. {1595L, not in 1602G{Peter de Medina counts and names in this Kingdom of Portugal sixty-seven cities or walled towns}1595L, not in 1602G}.
26.6. {1574L{To the Kingdom of Portugal at this moment belongs the Kingdom of Algarve, which is nothing but the Southern part of the Kingdom towards the sea. For the King calls himself King of Portugal, of Algarve, of Guinea, of Ăthiopia, Arabia, Persia and the Indies. This Kingdom first established itself around the year 1100. For until then, as also in ancient times, it went under the name of Spain. MarinŠus writes about it as follows: a certain Henricus, Earl of Lorraigne, a man of the most undoubted valour, coming from France, achieved great exploits against the Moors. In respect of which Alfonso the sixth, King of Castilia, gave him for marriage his own {1580/1589G, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{illegitimate}1580/1589G, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only} daughter called Tiresia, and assigned to her as a dowry part of Galicia as contained within the kingdom of Portugal. Of this marriage was later born Alfonso, the first King of Portugal, who later regained Lisbon from the Moors.
26.7. He conquered five of their Kings in one battle, and left to posterity as a monument of this exploit his coat of arms, consisting of five escutcheons. Oliuerius Ó Marca in his Chronicles published in French describes the coat of arms of this kingdom in some detail. At first, he said, there was a plain silver escutcheon without any image <on it>. Then, with regard to the five vanquished kings, five escutcheons were imposed on it. And in each of these five escutcheons there were five silver circles, in remembrance of the five wounds of our Saviour CHRIST, which at the time of the battle miraculously appeared to Alfonso in the skies. Or, as others report, since he was being wounded with five mortal wounds, yet he escaped death by the providence of Almighty God}1574L}.
26.8. Read also {1573L{Hieronymus Orosius}1573L}, MarinŠus Siculus, and Sebastian MŘnster. Of the origins of this Kingdom read the first chapter of Decades of Asia by Iohannes Barrios. {1573L{AthenŠus in his eighth book, first chapter, writes something about the fruitfulness of the Region, and the excellent temperature of the air}1573L}. Damianus Ó Goes describes Lisbon, the main city of the Kingdom, in a specific treatise. {1601L{Concerning the antiquities of Portugal, a book has been written by Andreus Resende}1601L}.
26.9. The Portuguese Dominions at this time are very large, for they extend from the Straight of Gibraltar, along all the Sea Provinces, and the adjacent islands, as far as China, and the isles called Lequios}1570L}.

<Since the texts in the 1571/1573D, 1572/1573G, 1572/1574F (which opens with a capital letter showing a king), 1581F, 1587F, 1598F and 1598D editions differ considerably from the text given above, I give a separate translation of these texts merged below.>

26.10. {1571/1573D{Portegael.

26.11. This Kingdom has formerly always been comprised under the name of Spain, until around the year of our Lord 1100, when it has been separated from Spain in the following manner. In those days King Alphonsus, the sixth with that name, ruled. He expelled the Moors from Tolede and many other places in Spain. For this victory he received important assistance and faithful service from a certain Conde Don Henrico, Count of Lorraine. Alphonsus wanted to reward this man for his faithful service and found nothing more valuable for this person, or of greater importance, than to adopt him as his son.
26.12. And he gave to him his daughter Teresa in marriage, and he donated that part of land in Lusitania (which is now the Kingdom of Portugal) which had already been taken away from the Moors, together with whatever else he was able to take from the Moors. And he was subsequently of such courage that he slayed another five Kings, as a result of which he bore on his coat of arms (which was white) five blue emblems, and on each emblem 5 white spots to commemorate the five wounds of our Lord, which had appeared to him in the sky in a miraculous manner, or, as Oliuier de la Marche relates, to commemorate the five lethal wounds inflicted on him by the Moors, of which he did not die through Gods help.
26.13. This coat of arms has been maintained by all his descendants to the present day.
In this Kingdom you also find Algarbe, which also provides a title to the King, for he is called king of Portugal, Algarbe, Guinea, Ăthiopia, Arabia, Persia and India. The main city of this Kingdom is Lisbona, on the river Tagus at the foot of the mountains, a Merchant city, of great renown and not without reason. Because it delivers to us all the foreign goods and merchandise which are provided by Art and Nature from Africa, Asia and the islands below it.
26.14. But here we have something extraordinary to report about the King of Portugal, (as we think), namely this: as we have noted before, the King of Spain has the largest Empire, but this King has the Empire with the widest extension. Because, next to Brasil, (which is located in America and which also belongs to him), he possesses all the sea coasts, beginning with that of Portugal itself, then from Strecho de Gibraltar, along the coasts of Africa, to the mouth of the Red Sea, further along Arabia to the island and merchant city of Ormus, past Persia all the way to India.
26.15. In addition, all the shores of the sea from Portugal all the way to Cabo de Lampo, with all the islands off these coasts, are under his rule. Thus, out of the 360 degrees which the Earth encompasses (at its widest, that is at the Ăquinoctial) all around, he has in his possession, from Brasil to the isle of Iapan, more than 200 degrees under his name, which is truly a memorable matter}1571/1573D} ę Marcel van den Broecke ę.

Bibliographical sources

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