Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 025

Text (translated from the 1570 Latin, 1571 Latin, 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French 1573 Latin, 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin, 1580/1589 German, 1581 French, 1584 Latin, 1587 French, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598 Dutch, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish and 1609/1612 Latin edition)

25.1. {1570L{SPAIN

25.2. Spain, according to Strabo, resembles an ox-hide spread upon the ground. It is surrounded by the sea on all sides, except where it is separated from France by the Pyrenee mountains. On the East it has the Pyrenee mountains just mentioned, which from the Temple of Venus, or the promontory stretched out near Illiberis (now Colibre) runs on to the British Ocean. And this is the very narrowest part of Spain. When I travel through Biscay (says Vaseus) I remember that from the hill of St. Adrian, if my sight does not deceive me, I saw both seas, namely the Ocean near at hand, and as far distant as I could just discern, the foamy white waves of the Mediterranean sea. <To the> North it is bound by the {1588S, 1602G, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{Cantabrian or}1588S, 1602G, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only} Biscay sea, <to the> West by the Western sea, and <to the> South by the Strait of Gibraltar and part of the Mediterranean {1573L, 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L only have instead{Balearic}1573L, 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L instead} sea.
25.3. Spain is divided into three Provinces: Bętica, Lusitania and Tarraconensis. Bętica in the North is enclosed by the river Ana, {1606E & 1609/1612/1641S only{now called Guadiana}1606E & 1609/1612/1641S only}; West by that part of the Atlantic Ocean which is between the mouth of the Ana {1606E & 1609/1612/1641S only{Guadiana}1606E & 1609/1612/1641S only} and the straight of Gibraltar; South, by {1602S & 1606E only{a part of the Mediterranean sea we earlier called}1602S & 1606E only} Mare Balearicum, extending {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{from Mallorca and Minorca}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only} from the straight just mentioned to the promontory {not in 1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S {of Charidamus}not in 1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}, now called Cabo de Gata; and Eastwards, it is bound by an imaginary line drawn from the Promontory just mentioned via the town of Castulo {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{the Old}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only}{1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{or Cassona}1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only} to the river Ana {1606E & 1609/1612/1641S only{Guadiana}1606E & 1609/1612/1641S only}.
25.4. It is called Bętica after the famous river Bętis which cuts the whole province into two. This river, originating from the wood or forest formerly called Saltus Tygensis, {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{plains of Alcaraz}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead}{1608/1612I only{mountains of Alcarez}1608/1612I only} runs into the Atlantic ocean, and is now called by its Arab name Guadalquibir, which means The great river. More recently this province was called Vandalica by its Vandal inhabitants, and presently by the same name, corrupted to Andaluzia.
25.5. {1606E only{<in right margin:> Lusitania contains Algarve and the greater part of Portugal}1606E only}.
25.6. Lusitania is bound on the North by the river Duero, from its very mouth to the bridge over at Septimancas. West, it borders on that part of the Atlantic Ocean {1609/1612/1641S only{also called Golfo de la yeguas}1609/1612/1641S only} which ebbs and flows between the outlets of the Duero {1573L, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G & 1608/1612I have instead{Ana}1573L, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G & 1608/1612I instead} and Guadinia{1573L, 1579L, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L & 1602G have instead{Durius}1573L, 1579L, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L & 1602G instead}. South by Bęticam {1606E & 1608/1612I only{Andaluzia}1606E only} and East it meets Hispania Tarraconis, {1606E only{now called Castilia &c.}1606E & 1608/1612I only}, even from the ancient Oretania to the bridge just mentioned at Septimancas {1573L, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{in a line drawn from Oretania {1588S, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{Calatraua}1588S, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S instead} to the cape of Septimancas}1573L, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S instead}. Lusitania received its name from Lusus, the son of Bacchus {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{Libro Padre}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead} and Lysa, one of Bacchus' {1609/1612/1641S instead{the Libro just mentioned}1609/1612/1641S instead}{companions {1580/1589G & 1602G only{in their ecstatic running to and fro to consacrate the Feast of Bacchus}1580/1589G & 1602G only}. As a result, it is sometimes called Lusitania after Lusus, at other times Lysitania after Lysa.
25.7. The remainder of Spain belongs to the province called Tarraconensis after the city of Tarracona which is the main city of that province, a city, (says Strabo) most notably suitable for princes on their travels to retire, and here the Emperors kept their chief jurisdiction. This province contains the kingdom of Murcia and likewise Valencia, and Arragon, with Catalonia, also Castilia Vieja, the kingdom of Navarra, part of Portugal {1571L, 1573L, 1579L, 1580/1589G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L only{between the two rivers}1571L, 1573L, 1579L, 1580/1589, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L only} {1606E only{Duero and Minho}1606E only}, the kingdom of Gallicia, Asturia and all of Biscay. See also for this Vaseus in his chronicle of Spain, who gives additional information.
25.8. Read also Marinęus Siculus, Marius Aretius, Damianus ą Goes, Franciscus Taraffa, {1573L{the Bishop of Gerundo, Annius Viterbiensis, and {not in 1573L, 1580/1589G, 1592L, 1602G & 1609/1612/1641S{in Spanish}not in 1573L, 1580/1589G, 1592L, 1602G & 1609/1612/1641S} Florian del campo,}1573L} {1579L{and after him Ambrosio Morales}1579L} with all those other Writers about Spain that Vaseus mentions in the fourth chapter of his Chronicle. {1573L{Stephan Garibayo in his Chronicle of Spain, divided into twenty books, describes the kingdom of Navarre}1573L}. {1595L, not in 1602G{Iohn Mariana also published a volume concerning Spanish matters not long since}1595L, not in 1602G}. Among the ancient Writers you must look in Cęsar, Strabo and the rest, who Damianus ą Goes mentions in his book called Hispania. {1592L, not in 1602G{ Also the Panegyric speech of Latinus Pacatus, and Claudianus' de Laude Serenę}1592L}.
25.9. {1595L{To these you may add the fifth {1606E instead{first}1606E instead} book of Laonicus}1595L, not in 1602G}. There is also extant a little Travellers Compendium written in Spanish by Alonso de Meneses, containing almost all of the regular roads in Spain, in which the distances between places are also noted.
25.10. {1579L{Three memorable things (as Nauagierus writes), are traditionally spoken of <in connection with> Spain. The first is a bridge over which water runs (whereas it runs underneath all other bridges), namely the water duct at Segovia. The second is a city surrounded by fire, that is to say Madrid, because the town walls are made of flintstone. And the third is a bridge, on which daily ten thousand head of cattle are fed, meaning the river Guadiana which hides itself under the ground for a distance of seven {1608/1612I has instead{six}1608/1612I instead} miles, after which it comes out into the open again. {1592L, not in 1602G{It must be conceded that this last one is a thing which has rather sprung from people's uninformed opinions than that it is based on the truth, as I have been informed by Don George of Austria, Governor of Harlebeck, an eye witness most worthy to be believed, <he> being a man familiar with all kinds of histories, and a wonderful researcher and admirer of natural philosophy}1592L, not in 1602G}.
25.11. The islands belonging to Spain which the ancient writers mention, at the Celtic promontory {1606E only{or Cape Finisterre}1606E only} are the Cassiterides, which now are not to be found in the ocean. Also the Insulę Deorum <islands of the Gods>, otherwise called Cicę, and now the Islas de Bayona; then Londobris, also named Erythia, and now Barlinguas. Then Gades, in old times dedicated to Hercules, now commonly called Caliz. These are all in the Ocean. In the Mediterranean sea you have Ophiusa, now called Formentera. Also the two Gymnesię, or Baleares, at this time called by different names, one being Maiorca, the other Menorca. The coast of Menorca is all around composed of huge mountains, but at the entrance of the harbour the feet of these mountains level out into plains until they approach each other to such a small distance, that ships can only enter the harbour when there is a very gentle wind. The harbour is called Mahon, and it is a most beautiful and commodious place, because it stretches out for almost four miles in length, with many inlets, all of which providing a safe harbour for the ships. From there rises a perpetual ridge of mountains from which the inhabitants cut down plenty of wood. At the utmost part of it, on the mountain top, a city has been built.
25.12. In contrast to this, the larger island <Maiorca> has a plain shore, and very high and barren mountains in the middle. There is a city with the very same name as the Island, very large and beautifully built. They use the laws of the Castilians {1573L, 1580/1589G, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{Tarraconians}1573L, 1580/1589G, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S instead}, and resemble them much in language and manners. This description of the Balearic islands {1606E only{Maiorca & Minorca}1606E only} we have borrowed from N. Villagagnoni's description of the expedition to Alger. {1595L, not in 1602G{Whoever wants to know more about these isles, and the disposition of their inhabitants is advised to read the sixth and seventh book of the life of Iacobu T., King of Arragon, by Bernardin Gomez}1595L, not in 1602G}.
25.13. {1573L{That Philip, King of Spain, possesses the largest Empire of the world since the world's beginning, we have demonstrated in our Theatre <= Theatrum Orbis Terrarum> printed in high German}1573L}.

<Since the texts in the 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1581 French, 1587 French, 1598 French and 1598 Dutch editions differ considerably from the text given above, I present them in merged form, but separately from the above text below. Note the discussion on King Philip of Spain, who appointed Ortelius as His Majesties Geographer, and donated 1000 gold ducates and a golden chain on top of that to Ortelius in 1574 after having received a complimentary copy of Ortelius' Theatrum. Philip, who twice sacked Ortelius' home city Antwerp, (in 1576 and 1585) and who even emprisoned Ortelius on the charge of heresy for a short time, is approached through geographical courtesy in this text. The text also puts the notion of world powers into perspective>.

25.14. {1571/1573D{Spain.

25.15. Spain is fully surrounded by the sea, except where it is attached to France, and is separated from that country by the Pyrenee mountain range. It includes (together with Portugal, which is a part of Spain but a Kingdom of its own) fourteen Princedoms, (as Damianus Goes reports) which are the following: old and new Castilia, Leon, Arragon, Catalonien, Navarre, Asturien, Granade, Valence, Tolede, Gallicien, Murcia, Corduba, Portugal and Algarbe. Its yearly income amounts to fifty {1598D has instead{fifteen}1598D} times 100,000 ducats. It has 21 Dukes, 21 Margraves, 62 Counts, 7 Burgraves, without counting Barons and other Nobility, of whom there are many. It has 8 Archbishoprics and 48 Bishoprics.
25.16. These Archbishoprics and Bishoprics have a yearly income of four times 142,000 {1572/1574F & 1581F have instead{442,000}1572/1574F & 1581F instead}{1587F, 1598D & 1598F have instead{42,000}1587F, 1598D & 1598F instead} ducats. This is clear evidence, without saying more about it, of its great prosperity and affluence. Whoever wants to know the specific names of these Lords and Bishops, each with their specific income, should turn to Damianus Goes just mentioned.
25.17. Next to their silver mines, this Spain has great amounts of Wine, Olive Oil, Figs, Raisins and other fruits. It feeds excellent horses, and has good iron in Biscayen, highly praised. That the river Tagus (now called Tayo by its inhabitants) yields Gold, has been recorded by the ancients, but nowadays there is little need for using that, (I think). The main merchant city is Seuilien, from which its merchandise is transported to our Antwerp, and from here to all of Europe, consisting of all the riches and goods which come from the New World (that is, America).
25.18. But since we are dealing with Spain here, I am reminded of the fact that I have dedicated my Latin Theatrum to Philippus, the King of Spain and our formidable ruler, calling him the Lord or Monarch of the largest Empire in the World that ever there was, or is, which has caused many readers to wonder (as a possible result of their limited knowledge about old histories or the location of countries), whether formerly the Roman Empire (because of its illustrious name) was perhaps at its time much larger and more extended <than Philippus' Empire>, or that nowadays the Turk (with its horrible tyranny) possesses much more land <than Philippus does>.
25.19. Or he may think that perhaps some other heathen King, such as Prester John, or else the Great Cam has a larger Empire. They may also think that what I have said <about Philippus> stems from blind devotion, or flattery, or too benevolent an attitude which I attribute towards our Majesty and Upper Ruler. Inasfar as my remarks are true, I will prove it here with as few words as I can.
25.20. That in old times the Roman Empire among all the Empires or Kingdoms was the largest and the most extended one, is something which anyone will easily believe, I think. Scholars will believe it as a result of their reading of the histories as they have been recorded, and the uneducated will believe it because their ears have been filled with the big name and reputation of that Empire on account of its illustrious characteristics.
25.21. That the Realm of the King of Spain is larger than the Holy Catholic one, or larger than other Realms as they are today, is proved as follows: The Roman Empire (to describe it roughly), was formerly comprised between the Spanish sea in the West, Scotland, the river Rhine and the Danube in the North, the Caspian sea and the river Tigris in the East, and the mountain range Atlas, and Egypt in the South.
25.22. To understand this better, one may have a look at the map which we have drawn up and published this year <Ortelius here refers to his two-sheet map of the Roman Empire, separately published in 1571, of which few copies survive>. The part of the World just described covers about 25 degrees of latitude between North and South, and about 70 degrees of longitude, as the Geographers call it <between East and West>. Let us now examine what King Philippus presently possesses. As we all know, he possesses America or the New Indies, as it is also called, as far as it has been explored, (except as regards Brazil, which belongs to the King of Portugal, and for New Foundland, which pertains to the French).
25.23. This America has been explored from the Straight of Magellano in the South to the part which they have called New Spain <=Mexico>, which extends to 40 degrees North, whereas the Straight of Magellan is about 53 or 54 degrees South (of the Equator>, altogether amounting to 93 degrees. Its length is from <the mouth of> Rio de Las Amasones in the East and the region of Quiuira <= Alaska> in the West, amounting to more than 100 degrees of total length.
25.24. If you look at the map, and inspect the regions encompassed within this area, and then compare it with the Holy Catholic Empire {1572/1574F & 1581F have instead{the Monarchy of the Romans}1572/1574F & 1581F instead} and then still believe that we are wrong, (although we think that there is even more land <belonging to Philippus>), also consisting, as it does, of Spain, the Netherlands, the Kingdom of Naples (comprising half of Italy) and the Dukedom of Milan, {1598F only{and finally the kingdom of Portugal and the East Indies, all of these being under the rule of our Catholic King Philippe}1598F only} then we hope you will concede that we are right. Whether the Realm of Prester John, the Great Turk, or any other is bigger, you can find out easily {1572/1573G, not in 1572/1574F & 1581F{and remember}1572/1573G, not in 1572/1574F & 1581F} from this Theatre of ours}1571/1573D} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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