Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 022

Text (translated from the 1573I/1573 Dutch, 1573G 1st Add/1573 German, 1573 Latin, 1574French 1st Add/1574 French, 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin, 1580/1589 German, 1581 French, 1584 Latin, 1587 French, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598 Dutch, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin and 1606 English edition)

22.1. {1573D1Add/1573D{IRELAND

22.2. Ireland, which the Greek and Romans call HIBERNIA, others IVERNA {not in 1588S, 1598D & 1602S{and IERNA}not in 1588S, 1598D & 1602S}, is by the Irish called ERYN. This is why strangers, hearing it from the mouth of the English, who pronounce e, the second vowel <of the alphabet>, with the same sound that others pronounce as i, the third vowel, have made it, so it seems, into Irynlant {1598D has instead{ERYNLANDT}1598D}, compounded, {not in 1573D, 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1598D & 1602S{as is apparent, from the Irish Eryn, and the Saxon or Dutch Landt}not in 1573D, 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1598D & 1602S}, which was afterwards contracted, to attain easier speech and roundness of pronunciation, to Irland from which the Romans undoubtedly framed the word IRLANDIA.
22.3. {1606E only{The first inhabitants which settled these islands came, as may easily be demonstrated from Brittaine or England, not from Spain, as some most absurdly have written. For the summary of Strabo simply calls the inhabitants of this island Britaines. And Diodorus Siculus says that Irin is a part of Britaine, for which reason it was justly called by all ancient writers INSVLA BRITANNIA, <that is> One of the British isles.
22.4. Around the year of CHRIST 400, in the days of the Emperors Honorius and Arcadius, at which time the Roman Empire began to decline}1606E only}, {1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L & 1606E only{the Scots, a second nation, entered Ireland, and settled, as Orosius writes, in the Northern parts, which they called SCOTLAND}1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L & 1606E}. Sylvester Gyraldus Cambrensis about 40 {1573L, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1588S, 1589G, 1602G & 1602S have instead, correctly{400}1573L, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1588S, 1589G, 1602G & 1602S instead} years ago described this land in a specific treatise. But because his book has not yet been printed, and therefore not common nor to be obtained everywhere, we will from it gather so much as this limited space may contain, not doubting that we shall be worth deserving great gratitude from the readers for this. Listen therefore to his words:
22.5. After England, Ireland is the largest Island {not in 1573D, 1573L, 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1589G, 1592L, 1595L, 1598D, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S & 1603L{of the world}not in 1573D, 1573L, 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1589G, 1592L, 1595L, 1598D, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S & 1603L} as we know it. It has the larger Britain on its East side. On the West lies the vast and wide Ocean. To the North, three days sailing from the coast of Ireland {not in 1602G{lies Island, of all the Northern islands by far the largest}not in 1602G}. Britannia is almost twice as large as Ireland. Because considering that the <largest> length of both of them goes from North to South, it is <for Britain> about 800 miles {1573D & 1574F1Add/1574F have instead 8000 strides}1573D & 1574F1Add/1574F} long and 200 miles {1573D, 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S & 1603L have instead{2000 strides}1573D, 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S & 1603L instead} wide, <and it is> for this <Ireland> from the Bredan hills to the isles of Columbina, also called Thorach, about an eight days journey, that is at least 40 {1606E has instead{400}1606E} {1573G, 1581F, 1588S, 1589G & 1602G only{large Irish}1573G, 1581F, 1588S, 1589G & 1602G only}miles.
22.6. {not in 1573D{Ireland contains altogether 176 Canweds. The word Canwed is a compound word, used by the Welsh {1595L, 1601L & 1602G have instead{English}1595L, 1601L & 1602G instead} as well as the Irish, and means an area of ground containing within it 100 villages {1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G & 1603L have instead{mansions}1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G & 1603L instead; not in 1573D}.
22.7. The soil of Ireland is uneven, full of hills and valleys, soft and moist, full of woods, bogs and fens. On the top of the highest and steepest hills, you will often find large ponds and bogs. Yet, in some places, it has the most worthy and excellent plains, but with respect to woods, there are very few of them. The soil is very heavy, and fertile in Corn. The mountains abound with sheep, the woods are full of Deer. The whole island is generally better for pasture than for arable ground, {1573L, 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1587F, 1589G, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L & 1606E only{much better, I mean, for grass than for corn}1573L, 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1587F, 1589G, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L & 1606E only}.
22.8. For the grains of wheat are here so miserable and small that they may hardly be threshed with any kind of flail. That which the Spring time brings forth, and what flourishes for a while in Summer, the dripping and watery Autumn will hardly suffer kindly to ripen, or tidily to be reaped. For this country is more exposed to blistering winds, and outrageous rain storms and floods than any other country under the scope of heaven.
22.9. It is very rich in honey and milk. Solinus and Isidorus assert that it has no Bees. But if they allow me, had they more diligently examined the matter, they might in contrast have written that it lacks grape vines, but it is not altogether devoid of Bees. For this island does not have, or ever had, any vines. But of Bees it has (as any other country) more than plenty. They would, in spite <of what has been asserted>, as I think, have swarmed in even far greater numbers if it were not for the poisonous and sour yew-trees which all over the Island grow in great abundance.
22.10. The Island is traversed and watered everywhere by many good rivers, of which the main ones are these: the Auenliss runs past Dublin; the Boand {not in 1573D, 1573L, 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1589G, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S & 1603L{(or Boine)}not in 1573D, 1573L, 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1589G, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S & 1603L} through the middle; the Banna through Ulster via Connagh; the Linne and the Moad through Kenelcunill, Slechy and Samayr; the Modarn and Furne by Keneleon. There are also very many other rivers, some issuing forth from the bowels of the earth and their clean springs, others directly running from lakes and fens, going here and there, and dividing and parting the Island into many good provinces and shires. At the foot of Bladina hill, {1606E only{(now called Bliew Blemy),}1606E only} three famous rivers find their source, commonly called The three sisters (for they bear the names of three sisters:), the Berna {1606E only{(Birgus, now Barrow,)}1606E only} which runs past Lechlin; the Eoyr {1606E only{or Neorus - they call it Nore -}1606E only} past Osire; and the Swyre past Archfine and Trebagh. Near Waterford they kindly greet each other <again> and reuniting into one track they quietly flow into the sea. The Slane runs by Wexford. The Boand by Meath. {not in 1573D{The Avenmore {not in 1574F1Add/1574F & 1581F{by Lismore}not in 1574F1Add/1574F & 1581F}, and the Simen {not in 1574F1Add/1574F & 1581F{by Limirick}not in 1573D, 1574F1Add/1574F & 1581F}.
22.11. And indeed, amongst all the rivers of Ireland, the Sinnen takes the prize not only for its vast size, and its long and diverse wanderings through the country, but also for its abundance of tasty fish. It issues from a very large and worthy lake, which separates Connagh from Munster, and then splits itself into two branches, running in opposite directions, one of them turning to the South, passing the city of Kelleloe and then encircling the city of Limirick with a direct course and large flow for a hundred miles and more, {1573L, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1588S, 1589G, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G & 1603L only{separating the two Momonias}1573L, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1588S, 1589G, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G & 1603L only} before emptying itself into the Brendan sea.
22.12. The other <branch>, not unlike the previous one, separating the middle and the further parts of Ulster from Connagh, runs in a crooked course, turning this way and that way, at last dissolving into the Northern Ocean, so that this river separates the fourth and <most> Western part of the island from the other three, like a midland stream runs from <one> sea to <the other> sea. For this island was formerly divided into five almost equal parts, namely into North Mounster, South Mounster, Leinster, Ultomera and Connagh. {1573L, 1588S & 1589 only in right margin; 1602G as regular text{Whether all the proper names of places and rivers can be considered to be correct is something I have grave doubts about, but I hope that you, by comparing this with copies of other books, will find the right way out. Meanwhile, the benevolent reader has to be satisfied with this, for we provide what we can provide, not what we would like to}1573L, 1588S & 1589G only, in margin, 1602G as regular text}.
22.13. This country has various good lakes. The sea coast abounds plentifully with all kinds of sea fish everywhere; the Rivers and Lakes hold a great variety of fresh fish, in particular these three sorts, <:> Salmons, Trout and muddy Eels. The river Shynen swarms with Lampreys. But many other sorts of good fresh water fish as occur in other countries are lacking, such as Pikes, Perches, Gogeons <= gudgeons, {1573L only{or Gobio fluvatilis, <a small fresh water fish, often used for bait>, {1574F1Add/1574F & 1602G only{and almost <all> such fish as do not come from the sea or salt water}1573L, 1574F1Add/1574F & 1602G only}. In contrast <to this>, the Lakes of this Island have three kinds of fish which are not to be found anywhere else. For they are somewhat longer and rounder than Trouts, with very white, solid meat, tasting very tasty and pleasant, very similar to the Hallibut {1606E only{(Umbra our author calls them)}1606E only} but with a much bigger head.
22.14. There is another kind, very similar to herring, in proportions as well as size, and also as regards colour and taste. Then there is a third sort, in all respects like trout, but with {not in 1573G{out}not in 1573G} spots. These <different> sorts of fish are only seen in Summer. In Winter, they never appear.
22.15. In Meath, near Fonera, are three Lakes, not very distant from one another, each of which has a certain variety of fish proper to itself, and not found in any of the other two lakes. Nor, do I mean, does <this fish from> one <lake> ever go to the other, although there is a most convenient access via the river which runs from one <lake> to another. If, by chance, the fish of one lake is carried to another, it either dies in a while, or it returns to its own lake again.
22.16. This island breeds more numerous Falcons of various kinds and Sparrows and Hawks than any other country whatsoever. Eagles are as common as harriers in other countries, and Cranes flock together in such groups, that often you shall find one hundred in a group. Here are also great quantities of Bernacles, which nature brings forth in a strange and wonderful manner. They are like wild geese {1573L, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1589G & 1602G have instead{ducks}1573L, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1589G & 1602G instead}, but somewhat smaller. They are bred from blocks of poplar wood, which have fallen from the shore <into the sea> in this way: first upon these blocks you will see as it were a certain jelly. Then, when the reeds and sea weeds hold the logs, being enclosed in shells {1573L, 1579L and later{(for better shape and safe preservation)}1573L, 1579L and later} they hang by their bills, until in the process and passing of time, they grow to a decent size, and become covered with feathers, <until> they either fall into the water, or, by the benefit of their wings, lift themselves up and fly into the open air. I have myself repeatedly and often seen with my very own eyes many very small bodies of this kind of birds, clinging to a woodblock on the sea shore, enclosed in shells and fully shaped. These {not in 1573D{do not walk like other birds do, they}not in 1573D} lay no eggs, and they never sit. And therefore, in certain places of Ireland, at Easter or on other fasting days, it is allowed to eat these fowls, as they are not of flesh, and do not come of flesh.
22.17. There are also numerous birds here of a kind which has a curious shape, or an ambiguous nature which they call Aurifrise, smaller than an Eagle, but larger than a hawk, having on one foot sharp talons, with a clawing grip, but the other foot has none of this, and is not suitable for clutching or carrying anything, but only fit for swimming. {not in 1581F{A strange and admirable product of sporting nature}not in 1581F}.
22.18. Here are also certain birds which they call Martinets, smaller than a blackbird, shaped like quails, but differing from them in that their bellies are white and their backs black. <I have> a strange thing to tell about these birds: if they die, they should be kept in a dry place, and they will not produce any stench, and being laid amongst clothes or wool, they will provide safety against moths. And what is even much more admirable, being dead and hung up in some dry place, they will every year shed their feathers and grow new ones instead.
22.19. In the Northern part of Ireland there are many Swans. But storks are rare throughout the island, and such as they do have are black. They have no Partridges, Pheasants, Magpies or Nightingales. It has just about all kinds of wild beasts. The Stags here are so fat that they are hardly able to run, and those of them who are smallest in body size do excel <above the others> in stateliness and rich branching of their antlers.
22.20. I never saw anywhere larger groups of Boars. They also have many hares, {1606E only{badgers and weasels}1606E only}. The bodies of their cattle, beasts, deer and fowls are in their sort smaller than in other places. {1573D, 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1589G, 1592L, 1595L, 1598D & 1602G only{There are badgers, and weasels, but}1573D, 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1589G, 1592L, 1595L, 1598D & 1602G only} of fallow deer, goats and hedgehogs they have none at all, and Moles, if any, are very rare. But of mice they have such an infinite number as nowhere else is to be found.
22.21. There are also many wolves and foxes, but no manner of poisonous creatures. {not in 1598D{For the Spiders and insects here are neither poisonous nor causing pain}not in 1598D}. The country is never shaken by Earth quakes, and scarcely once a year shall one hear thunder.
22.22. From these natural things, let us pass to those strange wonders which nature has issued in these out<lying> countries of the world. In North Mounster there is a lake with two islands, a large and a small one. The large one has a Church, the small one a Chapel. Should any woman, or living creature of the female kind ever come to the large one, it would die after some time. This was often proved by bitches, cats, and other creatures of that <=female> sex. On the small one, no man ever died, or could die a natural death.
22.23. In Ulster there is another lake in which there is an island with two different qualities: one part of it with a church devoted to the service of Christianity, is very beautiful, excellent and pleasant. The other, very rough, overgrown and unpleasant, is said to have been bequeathed to Devils and evil spirits. This part has in it nine caves or trenches in any of which if a man happens to sleep there all night, he is immediately assaulted by the evil spirits, and so grievously tormented and vexed all night, that by the morning he shall scarcely be able to breathe and will be almost half dead. This place is called by the country people The purgatory of St. Patrick.
22.24. There is also a spring or fountain in Mounster whose water, if used for washing, will turn the hair of a man hoary white or grey. I myself saw a man who washed one half of his beard with this water, and the hair became white, the other <half> retaining its original brown colour as it was before. In contrast, there is in Ulster a spring in which, if any man washes his hair, he shall never become hoary or grey-headed.
22.25. In Connagh there is a spring of fresh water on the top of a very high mountain which recedes twice every 24 hours, and flows as often <= also twice>, imitating the changeable motion of the sea. There is a spring in the more distant, Northern part of Ulster which because of its great coldness in seven years' time turns sticks and wood cast into it into stone.
22.26. In Connagh there is a spring which is only kind and wholesome for humans. But for cattle and other such kinds of brute beasts it is pestilent and dangerous. There is a spring in Mounster which, if touched by any man, will result in due time in a flood going over the whole country through storms and rain.
22.27. The people of this country wear coarse black cloaks or rugs (for the sheep of this Island are black) and they wear these sloppily and not handsomely. They also use small hoods, which hang down to their elbows. For riding, they do not use saddles, boots or spurs. But with a rod, sharpened and tapering at one end, they prick their horses, and make them run. Their bridles are such that they serve as bit and reign, made such that their horses, only used to eat grass, are never prevented from eating.
22.28. To make war, they go into the field naked and unprotected. They use three kinds of arms, <namely> long spears, darts and battle axes. The people are wild and uncivilised {1574F1Add/1574F only{and inhospitable}1574F1Add/1574F only}{1602G only{but hospitable}1602G only}. They delight in nothing more than to live in idleness, and prefer liberty above great riches. I observe the people to taking much pleasure in playing musical instruments, {1574F1Add/1574F, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G & 1603L only{and they deserve praise for that}1574F1Add/1574F, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G & 1603L only}.
22.29. This is what we have briefly collected here and there from the history of Gyraldus Cambrensis, {not in 1588S & 1602G{diligently retaining the meaning {1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F & 1587F have instead{order}1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F & 1587F instead} of his own words,}1573D, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F, 1589G & 1598F end here; not in 1588S& 1602G} {1606E only{which we have thought it correct to translate word by word as they were delivered by the author so that <in> later times <one> may realise either the credulous simplicity of former times, or how time changes countries, people and their behaviour}1606E only}. {1602S & 1603L only after paragraph 41{And because we have spoken before about S. Patrick's purgatory, it shall not be amiss to add to that the following discussion, taken from the twelfth book of Cęsarius, his history of Things worth remembering}1602S & 1603L only}.
22.30. {in 1595L, 1601L, 1602S & 1603L this passage is at the very end of the text{When St. Patrick, he says, converted this nation to Christianity, and they expressed doubt and disbelieved that man should be punished for his sins in the world to come, he obtained by earnest prayer the following place by the hand of God. The place looks like this: there is a deep pit or trench, enclosed fully by a round wall There are also certain Regular Canons. No man is so terrible a sinner as to deserve a greater penance than to abide for one whole night in that purgatory.
22.31. If any man be desirous to enter it for the first time to make his confession, they administer the sacrament to him, anoint him, perfume him, and instruct him as follows: thou shalt see this night, they say, the assaults of the Devil, and the horrible pains of hell, but they shall not hurt thee, if thou have the name of Jesus always in thy mouth. But if thou shall yield to flattering the enticements or terrible threats of the Devil, and shall cease to call Jesus' name, thou shall surely be a dead man. Then in the evening, lowering him into the pit, they shut the door and come back in the morning. And if they do not immediately find him, they look no further for him. Many have died there, and many have gone home again, whose visions have been written down by the friars mentioned, which are shown to those desirous to see them}1595L, 1601L, 1602S & 1603L only end here}.
22.32. {1606E only{Ireland, says M. Camden, according to the manners of the people is divided into The wild Irish and The pale English. But according to the ancient jurisdiction and the natural situation, it is more properly divided into five parts (and indeed it once contained five kingdoms) <namely> Mounster in the South, Leinster in the East, Connagh in the West, Ulster in the North, and Methe almost in the middle and the heart of the land. MOUNSTER, Momomia, the Irish call it Mown (once divided into West Mounster, which in Ptolemys time was inhabited by the Gangani, Luceni, Velabri and Itermi, and East Mounster, possessed then by the Vodia) now comprises these seven shires:
22.33. Kerry, Limiricke, Corke, Tiparary, Holy crosse, Waterford and Desmond. Of which Kerry and Tiperarie were earlier county Palatines. LEINSTER, Lagenia (they call it Leighnigls) has a fertile soil, and is a wholesome place to dwell, inhabited at the time by the Brigantes, Coriondi, Menapij, Cauci and part of the Eblani. Now it is divided into the counties Wexford, Caterlogh, Kilkenny, Dublin, Kildare, The Kings county, The Queens county, Longford, Fernes & Wicklo. METHE (Media, the Irish call it Mijh, <situated> almost in the middle of the country), has the other part of the ancient possessions of the Eblani, because of its great fertility in corn or grass, fish or meat, its pleasant location and healthy air, its multitude of people, strength of its castles and towns, commonly called The chamber of Ireland, as Bartholomey reports in English, was recently divided into East Methe and West Methe.
22.34. CONNAGH, Connacia, (they call it Connaughty) where the Auteri and Nagnatę settled long ago, now contains the following shires: Clare, Letrimme, Gallawey, Rosecomin, Maio and Sligo. The whole province, though in many places fertile and pleasant, is everywhere full of dangerous Bogs, dark Woods, Creeks and Bays, and convenient Ports and Harbours for ships.
22.35. ULSTER, Ultona, (the Irish call it Cui Gully, the Welsh Wltw) is a large country, everywhere full of Lakes, thick and huge woods, in some places reasonably fruitful, in others lean and hungry, but in all places green and pleasant to the eye,. It therefore maintains large numbers of cattle. Here lived in Ptolemys time the Voluntij, Darni, Robogdij, Vennicnij and the Erdini. At this day, it contains the shires Louth, Down, Anwimme, Monalion, Tiroen, Armagh, Colrane, Donergall, Formanagh and Caven.
22.36. On all sides around Ireland in the sea (as also in the bays, rivers, lakes and fresh water) many small islands lie scattered, some of which are fertile, and others are waste and barren, to speak of which would require more text than we are here allowed <to use>.
22.37. Pope Coelestinus of Rome, in the year of CHRIST 431, sent into Britaine Paladus <= pale> a Bishop, as Prosper Aquitanus writes, to purge it of the Pelagian heresy which had lately come upon it. And by this means, at that time, caused Christian religion to be established in Ireland. <But> Palladius died in Britaine before he had achieved what he came for. Whereupon Patricke, a Britain related to Martinus Turonensis was by Celestine put into his place. He preached the Gospel in Ireland with such wonderful success, that he converted the greater part of that isle to Christianity, so that he well deserved the name of The Irish Apostle.
22.38. After that at various times a number of settlements, if I may use that word, were established of learned and religious men who were sent from here to various parts of Europe and <they> were not only great patrons and spreaders of the Gospel there, but also founders of Monasteries, cities and towns as schools of that profession. In those bloody wars of the barbarous Saxons, all schools of learning in Brittaine were shut, and all religion almost totally banned, so that whoever desired instruction along these lines, was forced to seek it in Ireland.
22.39. And after these wars ended, those that returned brought with them not only the Irish letters, (which characters, as can be seen clearly, are still common to both nations) but also liberal arts and sciences, which together with Christianity they taught to the Saxons}1606E only}
22.40. {not in 1602G{To these the studious Reader may add such things as {1601L{Henry of Huntingdon,}1601L} {1573L, 1588S and later{Polydorus}1573L, 1588S and later} {1606E only{Vergill,}1606E only} {1579L, not in 1589G{William Newberry}1579L, not in 1589G}}, {1573G{Iohn Maior and others have written about it in their various histories}not in 1602G}. Daniel Rogers has published a description of this island in verse, dedicated to Thomas Rhediger}1573L, 1573G, 1584L, 1588S, 1589G & 1602G end here}. {1592L{And Mr. William Camden in prose has most exactly described it in his Britannia}1592L ends here}. {1595L{But Richard Stanihurst {1606E only{a worthy gentleman born in this country}1606E only}, has recently published an elaborate treatise on the history and state of this island}1595L & 1601L}.
22.41. {1606E only{Baptista Boazio has described it in a separate map, dedicated to the late Queen Elizabeth; and my good friend Mr. Speed, with no less care and diligence, has done the same in his Imperium Brittanicum or Empire of Great Brittain, recently published and dedicated to his Highness}1606E only} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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