Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 021

Text (translated from the 1573 Dutch 1 Add./1573 Dutch, 1573 German 1 Add/1573 German, 1573 Latin, 1574 French 1Add/1574 French, 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1580/1589 German, 1581 French, 1584 Latin, 1587 French, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish and 1609/1612 Latin editions); first we present the text of all editions except 1573G1Add/1573G & 1573D1Add/1573D;

21.1. {1573L1Add{CAMBRIA or WALES

21.2. {not in 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F{We have composed the text of this province on the basis of a certain fragment <of text> of our singular good friend Humfrey Lhoyd which we asked Birkman to print not long ago for the benefit of those who are students in Geography}not in 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F}. CAMBRIA, <he says>, the third part of Britain, is separated from Loëgria (or England if you prefer that name) by the rivers Severn and Dee. For the rest, it is on all sides bound by the Irish sea (which the Geographers commonly call Oceanus Vergiuius). It received its name {1606E only{(in their dreams)}1606E only} from Camber, the third son of Brutus. The Welshmen call it Cymbri, the English Wales, and {1606E only{the Romans}1606E only} WALLIA.
21.3. Only this part of the whole British island still enjoys <the presence of> its most ancient inhabitants, who are indeed the true, natural Britains. They still continue to speak the Britannic language, and cannot speak one word of English, which is a language consisting specifically of a mixture of other {1573L1Add, 1573L, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1580G and later{Saxon}1573L1Add, 1573L, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1580G and later}{1606 only{ <viz.> the Dutch and French}1606E only} languages. They now divide Wales into three provinces, Venedoth, Powis-land and Dehenbarth. Under Venedoth is also comprised Mona island {1606E has instead{Anglesey}1606E instead} (of long standing fame, and said to be the ancient seat of the Druids).
21.4. The inhabitants in behaviour and fashion of clothing follow the English. And they are an idle people, not willing to labour or take pains, bragging much about their gentile background, and they rather devote themselves to the service of Noblemen, following them to court, than to trades and occupations. This is the reason why you shall find few Noblemen throughout England whose followers and servants (in which the English surpass any other nation whatsoever) are not born as Welshmen.
21.5. Since they are men fed with {1606E only{meat, or}1606E only} butter and cheese, they have nimble and able bodies, fit for any kind of service. They are also men of a proud disposition, even in extreme misery and poverty reminding themselves of their noble descent. They delight in wearing beautiful clothes (like Spaniards do) rather than in acquiring goods or pampering their bellies, and they easily acquire court-like behaviour, which is the reason why the English Nobility prefers them as servants above the English.
21.6. Yet I hear that lately they have grown used to living in cities, to learn occupations, trade as merchants, go to plough, and do any business which is good for the common wealth as well as the English. They even surpass them in this, so that there are no poor people among them, but they will send their sons to school to learn how to read and write. And those they find to be talented they send to the Universities, and cause them mostly to apply their minds to study civil law. This is why the greater part of those who in this kingdom apply themselves to Civil or Canonical law are born Welshmen. You shall also find but very few among the common and uneducated people who cannot read or write their own language.
21.7. After their fashion, they play the Welsh harp. Now, they also have the Bible and common books for praying printed in their own tongue, {1595L, 1601L & 1608/1612I only{a language, as we said, which was used by their ancestors and entirely different from English}1595L, 1601L & 1608/1612I only}. In former times, long ago, they were a people (as Tacitus reports) impatient with any kind of wrong doing inflicted upon them. They were always at each other's ears and throats. {1573L1Add, 1573L, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1580G and later{But now, fearing the law (to which they abide better than any other nation) they will wrangle and contend with one another as long as they can}1573L1Add, 1573L, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1580G and later}. {not in 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F{These few observations we have obtained from Lhoyd {not in 1608/1612I{in his De Mona Insula which you find in this book}not in 1608/1612I}. {1580G, not in 1609/1612/1641S{{We refer the Reader who would like to know more details about this country to this author}1580G, <which edition resumes its text in § 11>, not in 1609/1612/1641S}.
21.8. Sylvester Gyraldus, a Welshman, has described Wales in a specific treatise. Read also his Journal of Wales. {the 1573L1Add, 1573L, 1588S, 1592L, 1602G & 1602S versions stop here and resume in § 11}. {1595L, 1601L & 1609/1612/1641S only{Moreover, William of Newberry in the 5th chapter of his 2nd book describes many things about the nature of this country, and the manners of its people}1595L, 1601L & 1609/1612/1641S only}. <The 1584L edition stops here and resumes in paragraph 11; after paragraph 16, the 1584L text is resumed here; in 1574L & 1575L, the following text is given below Leland's poem rather than in this place>{1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{More about this region and the nature of its inhabitants in Book 2, chapter 5 of Guilielmus Neubrigensis}1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1601L, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only}. {1573L1Add, 1573L, & 1580G resume here {To these you may add Polydorus Vergilius & those things which Robert Cœnalis has written in the summary of his 2nd book, de re Gallica}not in 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1598F}.
21.9. This Cambria, or (as the English call it) Wales belongs (if we may here by the way say something about it) by an ancient decree to the King of England's eldest son, {1606E only{or daughter if he <a son> fails,}1606E only} that is to say to the King's heir, who is to succeed next after him, and is called as soon as he is born: The Prince of Wales, and that in the same sense as in Spain and Portugal they call the King's heir The Prince, and in France The Dolphin <Dauphin>.
21.10. Geoffrey of Monmouth writes that in these parts of Wales, near the river Severn there is a pool which the country people call Linliguna. When the sea flows into this, he says, <the pond> accepts the water like a bottomless pit, and takes up the waves in such a manner that it is never full, nor runs over. But when the sea recedes at ebb tide, the waters which before had been swallowed, will swell like a mountain, which then dash about and overflow its banks. If at that time all the people of that shire should stand near the pool, with their faces towards it, so that the water should dash into their clothes and garments, they would hardly be able to avoid danger, and be drawn into the pool. But if their backs should be turned to it, there is no danger at all, even if they stand at the very edge of it}1573L1Add, 1573L, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1609/1612/1641S end here}. {1606E only{This is the story. I have mentioned the author, so let him approve of the truth of the matter}1606E only}.
21.11. {1580G, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{Of Mona, the island off the shore of this country you have the opinion of Humphrey Lhoyd in his letter which we have attached to the end of this book <=de mona druidum>}1580G, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only}. {1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1606E, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S only{About this has also been written by Iohn Leland {not in 1608/1612I{in his Genethliacon}not in 1608/1612I} of Edward, Prince of Wales as follows: This island, he said, being conquered by the English {1580G & 1602G only{with great force}1580G & 1602G only}, changed its name, and was now called Anglesey, that is, island of the English. Polydorus Vergilius, a man of great reading, and of good judgement in many matters, is of a different opinion. He contends with all his energy to prove Meuania to be Mona.
21.12. If the name which it still retains, and if the city {not in 1580G, 1588S, 1592L, 1602G, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S{of Cærnarvon}not in 1580G, 1588S, 1592L, 1602G, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612/1641S} which is opposite to it on the mainland, does take its name from there and is called Arvon for Ar-mon, if that very short distance <to the mainland> of which the Roman writers speak, if the ness or promontory Pen-mon, that is, as the word signifies, The head of Mon, if the huge bodies of trees and roots covered with sand which are daily dug out of the shore of Tir-mon, if the fir trees of marvellous length which in the dirty ground are here and there found in the earth of this island, do not sufficiently prove that this island was anciently called Mona which we now call Anglesey, then I do not know what to say more than that I have read this in the 14th book of Cornelius Tacitus' Annales, Excisiq; luci sævis superstitionibus sacri, &c. {1602G & 1606E only{<that is:> Felling the woods consacrated to superstitious services &c.}1602G & 1606E only}. The same Leland in another place has these verses on this island:
21.13. Insula Romanis Mona non incognita bellis,
21.14. Quondam terra ferax nemorum, nunc indiga silvæ,
21.15. Sed Venetis tantum cereali munere præstans,
21.16. Mater vt à vulgo Cambrorum iure vocetur, &c.}1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1608/1612I and 1609/1612L end here; 1573L, 1574L, 1575L, 1580G, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L & 1602S continue in § 8}.
{1602G & 1606E only{<that is:>
21.17. Tyr-mon in former times, (thus witness writers old,)
21.18. was full of stately woods, but now lies bleak and cold:
21.19. The soil is passing good, of corn it yields such store
21.20. That Welshmen's nurse it's called, as we have shown before, &c.}1602G & 1606E only}.
{1602G only{Whatever you can find in Polydorus, and in Cœnalis' De Re Gallica on Perioche may be added to this}1602G only, which text continues in § 9}.

<since the text of the 1573D1Add/1573D and the 1573G1Add/1573G editions differ considerably from the text given above, I will present a separate translation for these texts>.

21.21. {1573D1Add/1573D{Cambria or Wales.
21.22. {1573G{This description of Cambria I have taken from a short treatise written by my friend Humfred, which I ordered to be printed by the Birckmannos a short while ago for the lovers of Geography}1573G}. This land {1573G{he says}1573G} is the third part of Britannia, which is separated from Lhoegria or England as it is usually called, by the Rivers Dea and Sabrina. On all other sides it is surrounded by the English or Irish Ocean. It derives its name from Cambrus, the third son of Brutus.
The inhabitants are called Cymbri, and the English call it Wallia or Wales. This part of {1573G{the isle of}1573G} Britannia has retained its ancient inhabitants, since they are of course Britans, and they speak the language of their forebears, ignorant as they are about the English language, which is a mixture of Saxon and other languages.
21.23. This Cambria is nowadays distinguished into three areas, namely Venedotia, Pouisia and Debenhartia. Venedotia also includes the Isle of Mona, which by the ancients was famous and considered to be the abode of the Druids. The inhabitants imitate the English in food and clothing, and since they do not want to perform physical labour, being proud of their own nobility, they prefer to serve the King and Noblemen, rather than doing any handicraft. As a result of this, you will hardly find any Noblemen in England whose servants (in number in England exceeding those of any other nation) are not mostly born in Cambria. These people, fed on milk and other dairy products, have strong and able bodies, and capable in all kinds of services. {1573G{Since they are proud, but turn to Noblemen in great poverty, they exert themselves (like the Spaniards) to adorn their bodies rather than to obtain riches or food. They quickly adopt the manners of court, which is why the English prefer them to their own countrymen}1573G}. They live in cities, learn trades, trade, cultivate the land and do all kinds of things no less capably than the English.
21.24. They are even better <than the English> in the sense that nobody is so poor that they cannot send their children for some time to school to learn to read and write, and whenever possible, they send them to universities, mostly to study civil {1573G{and Church}1573G}Law, which is the reason why most Lawyers in this Kingdom come from Cambria. You will find only few people, also among the commoners, who cannot read and write their own language.
21.25. They also play the Lute in their own fashion. Nowadays, the Holy Script and the Church prayers have been printed in this language. And like they could not bear any form of injustice, (as Tacitus tells us), and used to fight and kill each other for this reason, so nowadays (fearing the Law which they observe meticulously), they quarrel and argue even if it costs them whatever they possess.
21.25.a {1573G only{These few words so far given have been taken from Humfredi, to whom we refer the Reader who wants more. Also, have a look at the Itinerary of the Welshman Giraldus Cambrensis, and the Book of Births of Io. Leland, about Edward, Prince of Cambria, from which we have taken the following matters concerning the Isle of Mona. This island has been taken by the English, who call it Anglesey, that is, the Isle of the English.
21.25.b Polydorus Vergilius, a well read and in all matters a very keen man, is of a different opninion, because he exerts himself to say that Menauia and Mona are one and the same. But note in contrast to what he says which name it retains to the present day. Note also the city which lies just opposite it. As a result, he also has the name Aruone in stead of Arnone, which is not such a short crossing as the Roman writers claim. Note also in contrast to what he says that the mountain Penmona, which means as much as the head of Mona. Note also the large woodblocks and roots, covered with sand, which have been found at the banks of the isla of Mona all around.
21.25.c Note also the wonderful tall fir trees which are found here everywhere in the marshy fields. If all these things do not prove that ancient Mona is the same island that is now called Anglesey, then, let me refer to Tacitus in his 14th book, where I read Excisiq; luci sævis superstitionibus sacri, &c. <that is: Felling the woods consacrated to superstitious services &c>.
21.25.d The same Lelandus elsewhere has about the same island these verses
Insula Romanis Mona non incognita bellis,
Quondam terra ferax nemorum, nunc indiga silvæ,
Sed Ven. etis tantum cereali munere præstans,
Mater ut à vulgo Cambrorum iure vocetur, &c.
<that is:
21.25.e The isle of Mona in former times, (thus witness writers old,)
was full of stately woods, but now lies bleak and cold:
The soil is passing good, of corn it yields such store
That Welshmen's nurse it's called, as we have shown before, &c>.
We can add to this that which can be found in Polydorus, and Robert Cœnalis in his Perioclie.II. about Gallic matters}1573G}.
21.26. This Cambria, or Wales as the English call it, {1573G{to mention this shortly}1573G} belongs according to an old custom to the first born son of the King of England, when he is to succeed this King, and from the day he is born he is called the Prince of Wales, like they call such a person the Prince in Spain and Portugal, and the Dauphin in France.
21.27. Galfridus Monumenthensis writes that in the area of Wales near the river Sabrina there is a stagnant water called Linliguna by the people living there, which absorbs the inflowing sea like a precipice, yet, is never filled up to reach its banks. But when the sea receeds, it will eject the water it has absorbed like a mountain, covering and watering its banks in this way. And if the people of that area would be present facing this, and would be sprayed by the waves, it would hardly or not at all be able to get away, but would be devoured by them. But if they would turn their back to them, there would be no need for fear, even if they stood on the banks}15731D/1573D} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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