Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 018

Text (translated from the 1573 Dutch first Additamentum/1573 Dutch, 1573 Latin first Add, 1573 Latin, 1573 German 1 Add/1573 German, 1574 French 1st Add/1574 French, 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin, 1580/1589 German, 1581 French, 1584 Latin, 1587 French, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598 Dutch, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish and 1609/1612 Latin edition)

18.1. {1606E{Of}1606E} {1573D{SCOTLAND

18.2. Scotland, the Northern {1602G has instead{Western}1602G instead} part of the isle of Britain, anciently called Albania, is now called by its first inhabitants {not in 1573G, 1587F, 1598D & 1598F{(called the wild Scots, who live more inland}not in 1573G, 1587F, 1598D & 1598F), who still retain their old language) Albayn. It was formerly called Britannia Minor and Secunda by the Romans as Lhuydus gathers from Sextus Rufus. This country is divided into two parts by the rough and craggy mount Grampius {1606E only{(now Grantzbeen)}1606E only} which Tacitus mentions.
18.3. It begins at the German ocean, near the mouth of the river {not in 1573G{Dee}not in 1573G} along the coasts of Aberdeen, through the middle of the country towards the Irish sea, and comes to lake Lomond. This mountain was once regarded as the boundary of the kingdom of the Picts and Scots.
18.4. Scotland is more full of mountains, and more barren than England. Yet it has everywhere many commodious ports and harbours. For this country is so much embraced by the arms of the sea that there is no house in it, as confirmed by Iohn Mayor, which is more than twenty {1580G only{Welsh}1580G only} leagues {1602G has instead{30 Welsh miles}1602G instead} distant from the salt water. In the valleys are Lakes, ponds, pools, rivers and springs well provided with all sorts of fish. In the mountains you find excellent plains, yielding great store of pastures for cattle, and woods abounding with plenty of venison. By means of which commodities it has been preserved in such a way that so far it has never been entirely conquered. For whenever there is imminent danger, they immediately fly to the woods and bogs, for help and refuge, where they have sufficient venison and fish to provide them with food.
18.5. Scotland has many wonders to offer, some of which we present here on the basis of Hector Boėthius. In Galloway, he says, there is a lake called Myrtoun, of which part of the water in winter freezes {1574F1Add/1574F, 1573D, 1580G, 1581F, 1587F, 1588S, 1598D, 1598F, 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{as happens elsewhere}1572/1574F, 1573D, 1580G, 1581F, 1587F, 1588S, 1598D, 1598F, 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only}. But another part of it was never known to be frozen even in the greatest spells of frost that ever occurred. In the country of Caricta there are very large and heavy Oxen, whose meat is very tender and of a pleasant and delicate taste. Besides that, their fat never hardens, but is always soft and liquid like <olive> oil. The sea that washes the shore of this province is very rich in oysters, herrings, eels, shellfish and other such fish.
18.6. In the province of Coyl, about ten miles from the town of Aėr there is a stone, almost 12 feet high, 33 yards {1580G & 1602G only{or more than 48 feet}1580G & 1602G only} thick, called by the inhabitants Surdum, The deaf stone. For however much noise you make on one side, even if you shoot a cannon there, it shall hardly be heard on the other side, except if you are a good distance away from it, for then the sound will be perceived. In Lennox, which Ptolemęus calls Lelgouia {1606E only{(Lelannonia as I read it in Ptolemęus, but I think our author means Selgovia, which is far from this place)}1606E only} there is a very large lake which they call LOVMOND, more than twenty four miles long and eight miles wide. {after § 7 in 1608/1612I{It contains thirty islands, most of which have well inhabited villages, with Churches, and Chapels dedicated to the service of Almighty God}after § 7 in 1608/1612I}.
18.7. In this, three things are especially worth to be observed. For the fish here, most wholesome and good, have no fins. Then, even when the winds are very calm and quiet, the water is often so boisterous and rough that it frightens the most experienced sailors from setting out to cross this lake. Even when the winds are weak, the boats drift off to the middle and are tossed about so dangerously that unless some commodious harbour happens to be near, they are often overturned and cast away. Lastly, there is an island in it, providing very good pasture for feeding cattle, which floats and moves every way as the winds push it.
18.8. It has been reported credibly that there is a stone which occurs in Argadia {1606E only{(Argathelia or Argile)}1606E only} which, if it is covered for just a short while with straw or flax, will set this on fire. At Slanis, (a castle) {not in 1580G & 1602G{in Buthquhan}not in 1580G & 1602G}), there is a cave of a strange nature. For the water that flows into it in the course of time is turned into a very white kind of stone. And if this had not been taken out, the cave would have been filled up by it a long time ago. In this province, no rats are ever to be seen. And if it should happen that any rats were to be brought there, they will not by any means continue to live.
18.9. In the country of Fife a great amount of a kind of black stone is dug from the earth {1606E only(we call it sea coal),}1606E only} a most excellent kind of fuel. At the mouth of the river Forth in the main sea there is a very high rock whose top has a spring with sweet water (a great miracle of nature) which flows abundantly. About two miles from Edinburgh there is a spring on the surface of whose waters drops of oil float all the time, of a kind that if you take none of it, there will not be more in time, but if you do take it away, there will never be less. The oil is good against roughness of skin. So far from him {1606E only{as regards strange things from this realm}1606E only}. In the country of Drisdaile, Scotland has a mine for gold, in which they also find what is commonly called Lazure. It has also Iron and Lead mines.
18.10. The inhabitants who possess the Southern part, on this side of Mount Grampius, are more civil and humane. And they do speak the English language. Those who dwell in the Northern parts are a rough and more hardy kind of people {1573D, 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1580G, 1581F, 1587F & 1602G only{(they call themselves The wild Scots)1573D, 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1580G, 1581F, 1587F & 1602G only}{1573L1Add, 1573L, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L have instead{They are called the Scots from the woods}1573L1Add, 1573L, 1584L, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L instead}. They wear coats and skirts dyed with Saffron after the Irish fashion, and go bare legged up to the knee. Their weapons are bow and arrow, and a sword with a very wide blade. They always wear in their belt on the side a dagger, sharp on one side only. They speak the Irish tongue. And like the language of Scotland is of two sorts, likewise diverse are their manners. These Maior {1606E only{Marianus}1606E only} Scotus calls High-land men, the other, {1573L1Add, 1573L, 1573D, 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1580G, 1581F, 1587F, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L & 1602G only{I mean the wild Scots,}1573L1Add, 1573L, 1573D, 1573G, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1580G, 1581F, 1587F, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L & 1602G only} they call Low-land men.
18.11. The main city of Scotland is Edinburgh. There is the king's seat, and the castle of Maidens often mentioned in histories. {1598D only{In the North, there are}1598D only} Saint Andrew and Aberdon <are> two universities. The city of Glasgow is the Archbishop's see. The town of Perth, commonly called St. Iohn's-town is the only town in Scotland with city walls, made of the wood Caledon (about which Ptolemęus and other ancient writers have written). There are now scarcely any remnants of it to be found, only about the town of Sterling, which contains some part of this name. So far for the kingdom of Scotland. Now it will not be wrong to say something about the islands which lie around it and which do belong to the crown.
18.12. The HEBRIDES, {1606E only{(commonly called the West-iles)}1606E only} both in number and size outperform the rest. Hector Boėthius says that they are 43 in number. But here he includes the isle of Man as one of them, while it is not subject to the kingdom of Scotland, but is under the allegiance of the King of England. Neither do I think that it was ever by the ancients counted under the Hebrides. The first among the Hebrides is Arana (sometimes called Boeth), then Hellaw and Rothes. Not far from there is Alize, where there are a great many barnacles, {1573D, 1573G, 1580G, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1598D, 1598F, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S and 1609/1612L only{which they call Soland-geese}1573D, 1573G, 1580G, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1598D, 1598F, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L only}. The greatest of all, and most famous, is Ile, a fertile soil for corn, and rich in metal. Then Cumber and Mule.
18.13. Near to these is Ione, memorable for the tombs of kings, buried here a long time ago. Next to this is Lewis, and last of all Hirth, situated at 63 {1606E has instead {43}1606E instead} degrees of latitude. This is what Boėthius calls them. But Iohn Maior the Scot calls them like this: Argyla, Aranea, Avvyna, Butha or Rothsaya, and Lesiuora. On these islands are geese which they call Clakes, (Silius Gyraldus calls them Barnacles) which Boėthius confirms to grow in the sea out of rotten wood, and which are not bred in trees, as others believe and have set forth in their writings. If you cast a piece of wood into the sea, he says, in due time, there will first be worms breeding in the wood, which little by little will form heads, feet and wings. At last, being full fledged and grown to the full, attaining the size of a goose, they attempt to fly. {not in 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F, 1587F & 1602G{Sometimes they swim}not in 1574F1Add/1574F & 1602G}, and sometimes they use their wings like other sea fowl do}not in 1581F & 1587F}.
18.14. Beyond the Hebrides are the ORCHADES {1606E only{(or the Orkney iles)}1606E only} of which the best is Pomona, famous for its Bishop see, a good Church and two strong castles. Iohn Maior calls one of these Zeland. It is 50 {1602S has instead(25}1602S instead} miles long. No trees grow on it, nor any wheat, but they are very fertile with all other kinds of grain. No serpents or other poisonous creatures breed there. To Scotland they sell barrelled salted butter. The inhabitants have an abundance of Barley, of which they brew the strongest kind of drink, and of all people they are the best drinkers {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{of the entire world}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only}. Yet, says Boėthius, you shall never see a drunk or madman, or one deranged or a natural fool amongst them.
18.15. The same author says the same about the inhabitants of Scetland. But this is no wonder, as many of them drink nothing but water. The wealth and commodities of these Scetland-men consist entirely of Stockfish, and animal hides. On the Hebrides they use the Irish tongue. On the isles of Orkney they speak the Gothic language. Mr. Iordanus on his map of Denmark says that the Orchades are subject to the kingdom of Denmark. Yet, we know them to belong to Scotland under the title of a Dukedom}1573D, 1574F1Add/1574F, 1581F & 1587F end here}. {not in 1580G, 1588S, 1598D, 1598F, 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{But see what we have written about this there {1579L{in the text belonging to the map of Denmark}1579L, but not in 1580G, 1588S, 1602G, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}. Of Scotland and the surrounding islands, you may read more in authors cited above, such as Hector Boėthius, Iohn Maior}1573L1Add & 1573L end here} {1579L, not in 1580G & 1602G{and Iohn Lesley}1579L, not in 1580G & 1602G}, Scots who have written the histories of this country of theirs}1573G, not in 1598D & 1598F} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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