Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 014

Text (translated from the 1579/1580L2Add., 1579 Latin, 1580 German, 1581 French, 1584 Latin, 1587 French, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598 Dutch, 1598 French, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603 Latin, 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641S and 1609/1612 Latin edition)

14.1. {1579/1580L2Add and later, but not in 1581F, 1587F, 1598D & 1598F{The Province of}1579/1580L2Add and later, but not in 1581F, 1587F, 1598D & 1598F} CVLIACANA.

14.2. This Province of Culiacana is part of the kingdom of New Galicia. It was discovered during the government of Charles the fifth, in the year 1530. In this region there is only one colony of the Spaniards, called The town of St. MichaŽlis. There are very many villages here, built by the inhabitants, who all had their own freedom before the arrival of the Spaniards, yielding obedience to no King or Governor.
14.3. In this region one can find various necessary things. A great abundance of silver is dug from the mountains. The inhabitants are addicted to war and robbery. They who dwell on the coast employ most of their time fishing, but the people who live more towards the interior live by hunting. They go naked, and only cover their private parts with a piece of Cotton. They have many different languages. They sleep for the most part in the open air, {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only{having no houses}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S only}. They are a most beggarly nation.

14.4. {1580G, 1602G & 1608/1612I only{About the islands of}1580G, 1602G & 1608/1612I only} CVBA and HISPANIOLA

14.5. This island of Cuba is so called by the local inhabitants, but by the Spaniards Fernandina, and Ioanna, and (as Petrus Martyrus reports) Alpha and O<mega>. In length it extends from East to West for about 300 Spanish leagues {1580G, 1588S, 1602G & 1609/1612/1641S only{or a lot more}1580G, 1588S, 1602G & 1609/1612/1641S only}, in breadth {not in 1608/1612I{fifteen and in some places}not in 1608/1612I} twenty of those leagues. The land is very mountainous, but rich in gold and excellent copper {1581F, 1587F, 1602G & 1608/1612I have instead{other metals}1581F, 1587F, 1602S & 1608/1612I instead}.
14.6. Dye, {not in 1581F, 1587F, 1598D & 1598F{which the Apothecaries call animal dye, because it}not in 1598D & 1598F} is very suitable for dying wool and leather}not in 1581F & 1587F}, is found here in great abundance. It is in all places beautified by heavy forests, with rivers and pools of fresh water, albeit that there are lakes which are naturally salty.
14.7. The woods breed Hogs and Cows in great numbers. The rivers sometimes yield grains of gold. It contains six colonies or towns of the Spaniards, the most important of which is called Saint Iacobus {1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S have instead{Santiago}1588S, 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S instead}, which is the seat of a Bishop. But Havana is the chief market and harbour of the whole island {1580G, 1581F, 1588S, 1602G & 1609/1612/1641S only{where they make ships}1580G, 1581F, 1588S, 1602G & 1609/1612/1641S only}.
14.8. Two wonderful things about this island are described by Gonsalvo de Ouiedo: one, a valley extending between two mountains for some two or three Spanish miles {not in 1581F & 1598D{(the Ancients would have called it}not in 1581F}, as in Gallia Narbonensi, {1595L only{now called Provence}1595L only}, The stony field)}not in 1598D} which produces round stones in such a great abundance that one might load whole ships full of them for stability. Nature makes them so exactly round that no sculptor can improve on them.
14.9. The other is a mountain, not far from the sea, from which is issued a kind of Bitumen or Tar in such quantities that it runs into the sea, and there continues to float far and wide, as it is carried by the waves and the wind. This Tar, they say, is very useful for tarring and braying ships.
14.10. HISPANIOLA lies to the East {1580G, 1581F, 1598D & 1602G only{of Cuba}1580G, 1581F, 1598D & 1602G only}. This island was called Quisquśia, later Haiti, and also Cipanga. But the Spaniards call it Hispaniola, and (after the principal city) Santo Domingo. It measures 350 leagues in circumference. It is an island rich in Sugar, and it has many Gold mines. A very strange thing is reported concerning a small fly very common on this island, called Cucujo by the inhabitants, which is almost as big as one of the joints of a man's finger.
14.11. It has four wings, two very thin, and the other two larger and stronger, which cover the thin ones. This insect shines in the night as glow worms do in our regions. The source of this light is not only its eyes, which sparkle like fire, but also its sides, so that by lifting its wings, it shines more during its flight than when it sits, motionless. Through the natural assistance of this little creature, all their rooms, so they say, are so well lit, even at the darkest nights, that one may read and write very easily without the help of any other light. 14.12. {1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1580G, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1598F, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S & 1609/1612L only{Also, if you take one of them into your hand, it will light your way because others will follow it}1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1580G, 1581F, 1584L, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1598F, 1601L, 1602G, 1602S, 1603L, 1608/1612I, 1609/1612/1641S and 1609/1612L only}{1581F, 1587F & 1598F only{regardless whether you carry a burning candle or not}1581F, 1587F & 1598F only}. This light of these creatures increases because of their great abundance, as many of them will give more light than a few would. Whoever desires a more elaborate description of these islands should read {1592L, 1595L, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L only{the history of the New world written by Jerome Benzo}1592L, 1595L, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L only}, Peter Martyr {not in 1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1581F, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1598D, 1601L, 1602G & 1609/1612/1641S{his Decades}not in 1579/1580L2Add, 1579L, 1581F, 1587F, 1588S, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1602G & 1609/1612/1641S} of Islands lately discovered}not in 1598D} and other writers about America}1579/1580L2Add} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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