Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 009


Texts: 2 (the first text has been translated from the 1570L, 1571L, 1573L and 1575L editions; the second text derives from the 1571/1573D & 1573G editions)

9.1. {1570L{ The New World,

9.2. That this entire Hemisphere or half globe (which is now called America, and with regard to its large size The New world) should lie concealed from our ancestors until the year of Christ 1492, at which time Christopher Columbus from Genoa first discovered it, is a matter which seems to surpass the measure of human admiration. For considering on the one hand the diligence of ancient cartographers in describing the World, and the commodious opportunities of most large Empires to search for new Regions, then, on the other hand, the insatiable avarice of mankind, leaving nothing unattempted to attain Gold and Silver, with which these regions abound incredibly, I have often wondered how it could have remained hidden from our World so long. There are some who suppose that this continent was described by Plato under the name Atlantis. {1571L & 1575L{Marinęus Siculus wonders in his Spanish Chronicle that here an ancient coin was found with emperor Augustus' image on it was found in a gold mine. And to prove that this was true, he said it had been sent to the Pope by Ioannes Rufius, Archbishop of Consentia}1571L & 1575L and later} Some think that Seneca, in a fit of Poetical fury, predicted the discovery of it in the following Prophetic verses {not in 1571L & 1575L:{in the very end of the 2nd Act. of Medea:}not in 1571L & 1575L}

9.3. --venient annis
9.4. Sęcula feris, quibus Oceanus
9.5. Vincula rerum laxet & ingens
9.6. Pateat tellus, Typhisque nouos
9.7. Detegat Orbes,
9.8. Nec fit terris vltima Thyle

9.9. <copied from 1606E>, which reads in English:

9.10. Long from now the years will come,
9.11. When the Ocean shall dissolve
9.12. Nature's fixed bonds and bars.
9.13. Then huge lands shall appear,
9.14. Typhis shall then detect
9.15. New worlds, nor shall Thyle
9.16. Then restrict the paths of men.<adapted from 1606E>

9.17. Also those Sibyllin verses which, (as Iacobus Navarchus writes, were found in 1505 at the foot of the promontory of the Moon (commonly called Rochan de Sinna) upon the ocean floor, engraved upon a square pillar, in the time of Don Emmanuel, King of Portugal, more or less like this:

9.18. Volventur saxa literis & ordine rectis
9.19. Cum videas Occidens Orientis opes.
9.20. Gangus, Indus, Tagus, erit mirabile visu,
9.21. Merces commutabit suas uterque sibi

9.22. which reads in English:

9.23. The stone with mystical letters shall be rolled
9.24. When West the treasures of the East shall see.
9.25. The Portuguese and Indians (a thing admired)
9.26. Shall transport their merchandise, desired by either part.>

{1575L{But this verse is not ancient, but written in our times, and not from the Sibyllines, but from comments upon them. Cęsar Orlandius Iurisconsultus, basing himself on the writings of Gaspar Varrenus, which I later read myself, informed me about this in Rome (which I entered in the second edition of our Theatrum). Later, I found it confirmed that in the time of Emanuėl, king of Portugal, a certain Hermes Caradus of that country, caused them to be engraved in marble, and buried in the earth. And when he suspected that the marble began to deteriorate because of the moisture in the ground, pretending some cause to celebrate, he invited his friends to his country house near where this feigned prophecy lay hidden.When all are set to start eating, in comes his bailiff with the news that his labourers have by chance dug up a stone engraved with letters. They all run to it immediately, read it, admire it, praise it, and are ready to adore it, &c. See how skilful he was in deluding his friends}1575L}.
9.27. This whole part of the world, (except for the Northern tract, of which the coasts have not yet been explored) has in recent times been circumnavigated. From North to South, it stretches in the form of two Peninsulas or Demi-isles, connected by a very narrow Isthmos or neck-land. The Northern part of the two contains New Spain, the province of Mexico, the country of Florida and New-found-land. The Southern part, (which the Spaniards call Terra firma) contains Peru and Brasil. Those who are studious in Geography may read descriptions of all those regions in Levinus Apolonius, Peter Martyr of Milan, and in Maximilianus Transylvanus, who wrote this all in Latin. For our purpose, there are also many useful observations in the Epistles by the Iesuits. Postellus announces Comments of West-Indie matters.

9.28. The authors that follow have all specifically written about America, but all in their native language, for the most part Spanish, but more than half of them have been translated into Italian.

9.29. PETRUS CIECVS LEGIONENSIS,
9.30. GONSALVUS FERNANDUS OVIEDVS,
9.31. FERNANDVS CORTESIVS,
9.32. PETRVS ALVARADVS,
9.33. DIEGVS GODOYVS,
9.34. ALVERES NVNNIVS,
9.35. NUNNIVS GVZMANNVS,
9.36. FRANCISCVS ULLAVS,
9.37. FRANCISCVS VASQUES,
9.38. ANTONIVS MENDOZA,
(next column:)
9.39. FRATER MARCVS NIZZENSIS,
9.40. FERNANDVS ALARCHONIVS,
9.41. FRANCISCVS XERESIVS,
9.42. IOANNES VERAZZANVS,
9.43. AMERICVS VESPUCIVS,
9.44. FRANCISCVS LOPES DE GOMARA,
9.45. HIERONYMVS BENZONIVS,
9.46. IACOBVS CARTIER, &
9.47. ANDREAS THEVETVS, who wrote in French,
9.48. IOANNES STADENSIS, in Dutch. }1570L}

<The texts of the 1571/1573 Dutch and 1573 German edition differ considerably from that given above. For that reason, I present a separate translation below; § 49-52 empty>.

9.53. {1571D{New World.

9.54. That this half of the entire World (which is called America) should lie concealed from our ancestors until the year of Christ 1492, at which time Christopher Columbus first discovered it, is a matter surpassing the measure of human admiration. For considering on the one hand the diligence of ancient cartographers in describing the World, as we see in Ptolemęus, Strabo, Plinius, Mela and others, and the commodious opportunities of most large Empires such as those of the Greek and Romans) to search for new Regions, on the other hand the insatiable avarice of mankind, leaving nothing unattempted to attain Gold, with which these regions abound incredibly, I have often wondered how it could have remained hidden from our World so long.
9.55. There are some who suppose that this continent was described by Plato under the name Atlantis. Some think that Seneca predicted the discovery of it in the following Prophetic verses in his Tragedies: Venient annis, etc. which we translate into Dutch as follows:

9.56. Many Years from now
9.57. A Time will come
9.58. When Neptune will produce a vast country
9.59. For everyone to see.
9.60. The Sea will dissolve it
9.61. This fine and new Land
9.62. And the darkest part of the World
9.62a.will no longer be Iceland.
9.63. Also those Sibyllin verses which, (as Iacobus Navarchus writes) in the year 1505, were found in Portugal at Rochan de Sinna upon the ocean floor, engraved upon a square pillar, beginning with Voluentur saxa, etc. which translated in Dutch is this:

9.64. The stone with perfect letters shall be read
9.65. When West the treasures of the East shall see.
9.66. The Ganges, Indus and Tagus, (a thing admired)
9.67. Shall offer to each other their merchandise.

9.68. Marinęus Siculus also writes that in these new lands an ancient coin was found with Augustus' image on it. And to prove that this was true, he said it had been sent to the Pope by Joannes Rufius, Bishop of Consentia which should demonstrate that it was already known in Augustus' time. I prefer think that it was lost there by some Spaniard who in our own time came there, and that it was thus found back. But let anyone believe what he likes.
9.69. This whole part of the world, except for the Northern tract, of which the coasts have not yet been explored has in recent times been circumnavigated. From North to South, it stretches in the form of two Peninsulas, connected by a very narrow neck-land. The Northern part of the two contains New Spain, Florida, Terra Nova and some other areas. The Southern part contains Peru and Brasil {1572/1573G{etc}1572/1573G}.
9.70. The islands belonging to this America are Spagniola, now called St. Domingo, Cuba and others, of which there are many there. Further the Asores and others near Terra Nova <= New Found-Land>. This entire land, as far as it is known, is under the governance of the King of Spain, except Brazil, which belongs to the King of Portugal, and Terra Nova, which belongs to the French. These lands abound with Gold to such an extent, that it can hardly be believed, and therefore I must adduce here three pieces of evidence from which it is clear that I speak the truth.<§ 9.71-9.72 empty>
9.73. In the first place Gemma Frisius on his World map says that in Collao, situated in Peru, there was a house of which the walls and ceiling were entirely made of gold. Also, Girava writes that in a region of Peru called Anzerma the soldiers are armoured from head to toe in golden harnasses, as we do with iron.
9.74. In the same Peru the Spanish, (as they have put on record), their horses, because of lack of iron, had no choice but to shod them with golden hooves. But this is no wonder, if it is true what Girava writes, that in Quito there is a mine where more gold than Earth is dug up.
9.75. In summary, these are rich and fertile lands. Among other things they have provided so much sugar to our countries, that now you find it in every kitchen, to be consumed by gluttonous people in great quantities, whereas in former days it could only be obtained in pharmacies, for the benefit of the sick (so to speak) only, so that now it is used as food which previously was taken as a medicine. But (which should not be omitted) these lands (before the Spanish first came) had a total lack of useful animals to assist people, because there were no Elephants, Camels, Horses, Mules, Asses, or any other animals that can carry loads or give milk, except for one animal which the Spanish call the Sheep of Peru, (which we once saw in Mechelen). It has the size of a donkey and the shape of a camel, but of a somewhat reddish colour}1571D} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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