Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 007

Texts: 2 (translated from the 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin, 1580/1589 German, 1584 Latin, 1587 French, 1588 Spanish, 1592 Latin, 1595 Latin, 1598 French, 1598 Dutch, 1601 Latin, 1602 German, 1602 Spanish, 1603Latin (= 1609/1612 Latin text), 1606 English, 1608/1612 Italian, 1609/1612/1641 Spanish and 1609/1612 Latin edition; we will first present the Latin, German and Spanish editions, and then the French and Dutch editions)

7.1. {1574L{ASIA

7.2. Asia is separated from Europe through the river Tanais, and by a straight line drawn from the sources of that river to Granduicum {1606E instead:{the Bay of St. Nicolas}1606E} in the Northern Ocean; but from Africa by the small piece of land Isthmos {1606E{or the narrow piece of land}1606E} between the Arab Gulf {1608/1612I only{or Red Sea}1608/1612I only} and the Mediterranean sea. The remainder of the continent is surrounded by the Ocean and by other seas.
7.3. The ancient geographers {1595L, not in 1602G{such as Strabo in his eleventh book and Arianus in his fifth book}1595L, not in 1602G} have divided it in various manners. But presently it may not be unreasonable to say that it is distributed over five parts, according to the great Empires by which it is governed. The first of these borders on Europe, and is subject to the great Duke of Moscouia, is bounded by the Frozen Sea, the river Ob, lake Kytaia, and a line drawn from there to the Caspian sea, and by the Isthmus, {1606E only{or stretch of land}1606E only} between the Caspian and the Black sea. The second one is that which yields obedience to the great Cham, Emperor of the Tartars, whose southern borders are the Caspian sea, the river Iaxartes, and mount Imaus; on the East and North it is bordered by the ocean, and westwards it is bound by the dominions of the great Duke of Russia just mentioned. The third part, the area of the Ottomans {1606E only{or the Turkish Emperor,}1606E only} contains whatever regions are situated within the reach of the Black sea, the Ægæan sea (now called Archipelago) the Mediterranean sea, the land of Ægypt, the Arabian and Persian seas, the river Tigris, the Caspian sea, and the Isthmos {1606E only{or stretch of land}1606E only} between it and the Black sea. Under the fourth shall be comprised the Kingdom of Persia, now governed by the Sophies.
7.4. Westwards, it has the Turks, with whom the Persians mostly maintain continual warfare; northwards the Empire of the great Cham; eastwards it extends almost to the river Indus; and on the South it is restrained by the sea, at present called Indicum, but in former times Mare Rubrum, or Red Sea. Now, the fifth part takes up all that remains, which, in the past as well as in the present is called The Indies; it is neither governed by one King, as are the former, but by many petty Kings, almost every region having its particular Governor, some of whom are tributaries to the great Cham. And it is not to be omitted that all the sea coasts from the Arab Gulf to this promontory {1606E only{of China,}1606E only} commonly called Cabo de Lampo, which you can see at 30 degrees of Northern Latitude, are in a way owned, or made tributaries, to the Portuguese.
7.5. Among infinite others, the principal islands belonging to Asia are Creta {1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L instead{Cyprus}1595L, 1601L, 1603L, 1608/1612I & 1609/1612L instead} and Rhodes in the Mediterranean sea; and Taprobana and Zeilan, {only in 1606E{well known to the ancients, now called Samotra, but incorrectly also Sumatra,}1606E only} in the Indian Ocean, where also, within the memory of my father, the Portuguese have discovered the two Iavas, with {1606E only{the isles of}1606E only} Borneo, Celebes, Palohan, and Mindanao; and here are likewise Gilolo, and the Moluccos, now famous for the abundance of spices which they produce. To these may be added the isles of Japan and new Guinea, {1574L, 1579L and later{discovered lately,}1574L, 1579L & later} but whether this last one is an island, or is adjoined to the Southern Antarctic mainland is not yet known for certain.
7.6. The history of this part of the world is of great fame, not only through profane writers (as they call them), with respect to the first monarchies established by the Assyrians, the Persians and the Babylonians, and the Medes; but it is also most famous in the Holy Writings than is the rest; for here mankind was not only created by almighty God, deluded and corrupted by the enemy Satan, and restored by our Saviour Christ, but we also find that almost all histories in either testament have taken place and have been written down in this part of the world.
7.7. Strabo has described Asia in six books, namely from book 11 onwards {1606E only{to book 16}1606E only}. Ptolemæus has described the same in {1588S{three of}1588S} his books <namely> {1579L, 1584L, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L & 1609/1612L only{3}1579L, 1584L, 1592L, 1595L, 1601L, 1603L & 1609/1612L only}, 5, 6 and 7, and likewise in 12 Geographical Maps, and he attributes 40 provinces to it. {1592L, not in 1602G{It has also been published by Ammianus Marcellinus in his 23rd book}1592L, not in 1602G}, {1579L but not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S{and by Diodorus Siculus at the beginning of his 18th book}1579L, not in 1602S & 1609/1612/1641S}. Of recent writers none have fully and specifically described it. Mr. Paulus Venetus <Marco Polo>, Ludouicus Vartomannus, and Sr. Iohn Mandeville, (but this last author is full of fables) have written much about it as they found worthy of observation by travelling through the area. Read also the Epistle of Iacobus Navarchus, a Jesuit.
7.8. I myself have likewise published a large map describing Asia three {1592L and later except 1602G have instead:{some}1592L & later except 1602G} years ago}1574L}.

<Since the text of the 1581 French, 1587 French, 1598 Dutch and 1598 French editions are quite different from the one given above, a separate translation of this text is given below>

7.9. {1581F{Asia.

7.10. In all writers this part of the world, next to Europa, has been very famous because of the Persian, Medan, Assyrian, and Babylonian Monarchs. And in principle, a lot has been written about it in the Holy Script, since the Human Race was first created there, betrayed by the Devil and fallen, and resurrected by Jesus Christ. In summary, the entire history related in the Old Testament took place in this part of the World.
7.11. The ancient writers have divided this continent into many different parts, but nowadays it seems appropriate to divide it into five parts after the five Empires or Rules which are the main ones. The first of which, adjacent to Europe, belongs to the Duke of Moscovy, confined by the Northern sea, the river Ob, lake Kytaia, and a line drawn from there to the Caspian sea, and the Isthmus or narrow piece of land which is found between this Caspian sea and Mar Magiore.
7.12. The second Empire is that ruled by the Great Cam, which borders to the first one on its West; in the South on the river Chesel, Mount Imaus and from there (roughly) by a line going to the sea near Cabo de Lampo; in the East and the North it is bordered by the sea.
7.13. The third Empire is that tyrannised by the Big Turk. It is located between Mar Magiore, the Archipelago, the Mediterranean, Egypt, the Red Sea, the Sea of the Persians, the river Tigris, the Caspian Sea, and the narrow piece of land between this Caspian Sea and Mar Magiore.
7.14. The fourth Empire is the Empire of the Persians, ruled by the Sophis, which in the West borders on the Turkish Empire just mentioned, in the North on the Empire of the Great Cam, in the East it extends to the river Indus, and in the South on the Indian Sea.
7.15. The fifth part comprises the remainder, which is now known and has been known before as India. But this part is not governed by one ruler, as the others are, but by numerous different rulers, because each specific country here has its own specific lord, some of whom pay tribute to the Great Cam.
7.16. Also, it should not be forgotten that all ports or harbours and fortifications which border the sea from the Red Sea all the way to Cabo de Lampo (which you can find thirty degrees North of the Equator), are in the possession of the King of Portugal, or pay tribute to him.
7.17. To this continent of Asia also belong many large and rich islands, among which are included, going from West to East, excepting Cyprus and Rhodes, which are situated in the Mediterranean, these are most noteworthy: Zeylan, which produces the best cinnamon, Samotra, Java the large and the small one, Borneo, Celebes, Palohan, Mindanao, Gilolo and the Moluccas yielding cloves, and Japan, which will be described in detail, as also New Guinea, which, because it has not yet been explored, is not known to be an island or a part of the continent of Magellanica}1581F} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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