Cartographica Neerlandica Map Text for Ortelius Map No. 004

Texts: 2 (translated from the 1570 Latin, 1571 Latin, 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1573 Latin, 1574 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin, 1580/1589 German, 1581 French and 1587 French edition; the 1570 Latin, 1571 Latin, 1573 Latin, 1575 Latin, 1579 Latin and 1580/1589 German editions are presented first; then we present 1571/1573 Dutch, 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1580/1589 German, 1581 French & 1587 French);

{1570L{4.1. EUROPA

4.2. Why EUROPA should be called as it is, and who was the first Author of this Name, nobody has yet found out; unless, says Herodotus in his fourth book, we should think that the whole region borrowed its name from Tyria Europa. Plinius calls her the Nurse of the victorious people who conquer all other nations of the world, most beautiful and far surpassing the rest; and thus it is sometimes compared to Asia and Africa, not for its size and extension, but for its mighty power. It is certain that this part of the world, most plentifully inhabited, is for a multitude of nations inferior to neither of the other continents.
4.3. The North and the Western shores of this continent are washed by the ocean; the South coast is separated from Africa by the Mediterranean Sea. Then Eastwards, its shores are washed by the Ægæan sea, now called Archipelago, by the Black Sea, named at this time Mar Maggiore, by lake Mæotis, now termed Mar della Zabacche, by the river Tanais, commonly called Don, and by the Isthmus or straights of the main land, which is from the head or source of this river directly to the North Ocean; this is separate from Asia, according to Glareanus. Thus, it has the shape of a Peninsula as is manifest from the Map itself. Its head Rome was once the ruler of the earth.
{1574L{Its regions, (as we now call them), are Hispania, Gallia, Germania, Italia, Slauonia, Græcia, Hungaria, Polonia with Lithuania, Moscouia or rather Russia and its peninsula on which Noruegia, Suedia & Gothia. Of its islands we should first mention Anglia, Irlandia, Groenlandia, <and> Frislandia, situated in the Nordic Ocean. In the Mediterranean sea you find Sicilia, Sardinia, Corsica, Candia, Maiorica, Minorica, Corfu, <and> Negropontus, and further others of less significance, of which you find the names and locations on the Map itself}1574L}.
4.4. This Europe of us, besides the Roman Empire which is held in reverence all over the World, has all in all twenty-eight Christian Kingdoms (including those fourteen which Damianus from Goes already counts in Spain alone). This will allow you to estimate the worthiness of this region. It is a place extraordinary fruitful, and the natural disposition of the weather is very temperate. In all sorts of Grain, Wines, and in its abundance of Wood, it is inferior to none, but comparable to the best of others.
4.5. It is so pleasant, so beautified with stately Cities, Towns and Villages that for the courage and valour of its people and nations, although it may be less in quantity and size than other continents, yet it might well be considered, as has indeed been done by all ancient writers, as superior to all other parts of the world. Most renowned has it also become because of the Greek Empire, and the great dominance and power of the Romans. The praise of that Empire you may read in Strabo, who in his third book, and seven following books, has described it in the most excellent and learned manner. Also consult other ancient Geographers.
4.6. More recently, Writers, amongst whom Volaterranus, Sebastian Munster, Dominicus Niger, Georgius Rithaymerus, in their Geographies have also endeavoured to paint Europe out in its colours. But Pius the second, Christophorus and Ancelmus Cellæ, have described it as a part by itself.
4.7. Various annotations about Europe concerning roads, as well as distances, have appeared in book form written by Cherubinus Stella, Ioannes Herbaceus, and Georgius Meyerus. Something similar has been done by Guilielmus Gratarolus in the end of his book, which is entitled De regimine iter agentium, <= A guide for travellers> }1570L}.

<Since the text of the 1571/73 Dutch, the 1572/1573 German, 1572/1574 French, 1581 French and 1587 French editions are rather different from the text above, I provide a separate translation of the text from these editions below>

4.9. {1571D{Europe.

4.10. This is the part of the world which we now call <that of> Christianity, although the Christian religion there in some places has been eradicated by the Tyranny of the Turks. Among the parts of the World it is the least extended one, yet it has been considered the best. Next to the Holy Catholic Empire, (which Empire is still the first of all in dignity and formerly used to be the first in power and reputation), it has 28 Christian Kingdoms. The main and most important Regions of this Europe (starting in the West, passing through the South and East and ending in the North) are Spain, France, Germany, Italy, Slauonia, Greece, Hungary, Poland with Lithuania, Moscovia or Russia, and the Northern part, once called Scandia, in which you find Norway, Sweden and a part of Denmark.
4.11. The islands belonging to Europe are in the first place the island once called Albion, which is now England and Scotland, Ireland, Frislandt, Iceland and Greenland, all located in the large Northern sea. The islands in the Mediterranean are Sicily, Candia, Corsica, Sardegnen, Maiorca, and Minorca, Negroponte, Malta, Corfu, Stalimene, Metelin, Sio and some smaller islands in the Archipelago and other waters.
4.12. On the whole its air is a temperate and wholesome, and therefore fertile continent, everywhere more densely populated than the other parts of the world, and beset with wonderful Cities. Its capital is (and always has been) Rome, known in all times and places.
4.13. Its inhabitants are always, more than all other peoples, of sharp wit and sturdy body, which has caused them to have subjected almost the whole World, at least as far as it was known to them, as became clear for the first time in the Macedonian Empire through Alexander the Great, but after that mainly through the Roman Empire.
4.14. And nowadays <it is prominent> through the King of Spain, {not in 1572/1574F, 1581F & 1587F{Philippus}not in 1572/1574F, 1581F & 1587F}, our formidable Lord, and the King of Portugal, who together rule the four continents of the World. Thus it seems that the inhabitants of this part of the World are born with the natural gift to govern the others}1571D} © Marcel van den Broecke ©.

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